July 6

1777 – Siege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.

1779 – Battle of Grenada: The French defeat British naval forces

1854 – The first convention of the United States Republican Party is held in Jackson, Michigan

1885 – Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies

1917 – Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire

1919 – The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship.

1933 – The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played in Chicago’s Comiskey Park.

1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.

2013 – A Boeing 777 operating as Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashes at San Francisco International Airport, killing three and injuring 181 of the 307 people on board.
San Francisco television station KTVU newsanchor Tori Campbell reported faked out names of the flight crew; Sum Ting Wong, Wi Tu Lo, Ho Lee Fuk and Bang Ding Ow.

Birthdays
1736 – GEN Daniel Morgan
1747 – CPT John Paul Jones
1918 – Sebastian Cabot
1921 – Nancy Reagan
1925 – Merv Griffin
1927 – Janet Leigh
1937 – Ned Beatty
1946 – George W. Bush
1946 – Sylvester Stallone
1951 – Geoffrey Rush
1980 – Eva Green

Deaths
1415 – Jan Hus, burned at the stake for heresy
1535 – Sir Thomas More
1802 – GEN Daniel Morgan. Yes, same one.
1835 – Chief Justice John Marshall
1854 – Georg Ohm. Yes, ‘Ohm’ as in electricity
1971 – Louis Armstrong
1973 – Otto Klemperer
2003 – Buddy Ebsen
2009 – Robert McNamara

July 5

1687 – Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

1775 – The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.

1813 – War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.

1814 – War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa: American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.

1915 – The Liberty Bell leaves Philadelphia to the Panama–Pacific International Exposition.

1935 – The National Labor Relations Act is signed into law

1950 – Korean War: American forces of Task Force Smith engage North Korean forces

1950 – The Israeli Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.

1971 – The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is ratified

1989 –LTC Oliver North is sentenced to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service for his part in the Iran–Contra affair. The convictions are later overturned.

Birthdays
1466 – Giovanni Sforza, husband of Lucrezia Borgia
1586 – Thomas Hooker, founder of Connecticut Colony
1794 – Sylvester Graham, minister and namesake of the graham cracker
1801 – ADM David Farragut
1810 – P. T. Barnum,
1853 – Cecil Rhodes, namesake of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
1902 – AMB Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
1904 – Milburn Stone
1928 – Warren Oates

Deaths
1863 – GEN Lewis Armistead (wounded battle of Gettysburg)
2002 – Katy Jurado, Ted Williams
2005 – ADM James Stockdale

**************

About the Declaration there is a finality that is exceedingly restful. It is often asserted that the world has made a great deal of progress since 1776, that we have had new thoughts and new experiences which have given us a great advance over the people of that day, and that we may therefore very well discard their conclusions for something more modern.

But that reasoning can not be applied to this great charter.
If all men are created equal, that is final.
If they are endowed with inalienable rights, that is final.
If governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, that is final.
No advance, no progress can be made beyond these propositions.

If anyone wishes to deny their truth or their soundness, the only direction in which he can proceed historically is not forward, but backward toward the time when there was no equality, no rights of the individual, no rule of the people.

Those who wish to proceed in that direction can not lay claim to progress.
They are reactionary.
Their ideas are not more modern, but more ancient, than those of the Revolutionary fathers.
Calvin Coolidge, Address at the Celebration of the 150th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia on July 5, 1926.

July 4

1054 – A supernova, called SN 1054, is seen by Chinese Song dynasty, Arab, and possibly Amerindian observers near the star Zeta Tauri. For several months it remains bright enough to be seen during the day. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula.

1187 – Battle of Hattin. Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem.

1744 – The Treaty of Lancaster. The Iroquois cede lands between the Allegheny Mountains and the Ohio River to the British.

1774 – The Orangetown Resolutions are adopted in New York, protesting against the British Parliament’s Coercive Acts.

1776 – The United States Declaration of Independence is published by the Second Continental Congress.

1778 – U.S. forces under George Clark capture Kaskaskia during the Illinois campaign.

1802 – The United States Military Academy opens at West Point, New York

1803 – The Louisiana Purchase is announced

1817 – Construction on the Erie Canal begins in Rome, New York

1827 – Slavery is abolished in the State of New York.

1831 – Samuel Francis Smith writes “My Country, ‘Tis of Thee”

1838 – The Iowa Territory is organized.

1862 – Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels.

1863 – Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to U.S. forces under Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege.
Confederate forces are repulsed at the Battle of Helena, Arkansas.
The Army of Northern Virginia withdraws from the battlefield after losing the Battle of Gettysburg

1903 – The Philippine–American War is officially concluded.

1934 – Leo Szilard patents the chain-reaction design that would later be used in the atomic bomb.

1939 – Lou Gehrig announces his retirement from major league baseball at Yankee Stadium

1950 – Radio Free Europe begins broadcasting

1966 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act

1976 – The U.S. celebrates its Bicentennial.
Operation Thunderbolt. Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all but four of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

1997 – NASA’s Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.

2004 – The cornerstone of the Freedom Tower is laid on the World Trade Center site in New York City.

2009 – The Statue of Liberty’s crown reopens to the public after eight years of closure

2012 – The discovery of particles consistent with the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider is announced at CERN.

Birthdays
1776 – The United States of America
1790 – George Everest. Yes, this is the geologist they named the mountain after
1804 –Nathaniel Hawthorne
1816 – Hiram Walker
1872 – President Calvin Coolidge
1883 – Rube Goldberg
1902 – Meyer Lansky
1920 – Leona Helmsley
1924 – Eva Marie Saint
1927 – Gina Lollobrigida, Neil Simon

Deaths
1187 – Raynald of Châtillon (See Battle of Hattin)
1826 – Presidents John Adams, Thomas Jefferson
1831 – President James Monroe
1976 – Yonatan Netanyahu (See Operation Thunderball)
1995 – Eva Gabor

 

In CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

 

July 3

1035 – William the Conqueror becomes the Duke of Normandy.

1754 – Colonel George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French forces.

1767 – Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn aboard HMS Swallow

1775 – General George Washington takes command of the Continental Army

1852 – Congress establishes the United States mint in San Francisco

1863 – The final day of the Battle of Gettysburg culminates with Pickett’s Charge.

1890 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd state.

1898 – A Spanish squadron, led by Pascual Cervera y Topete, is defeated by an American squadron under William T. Sampson in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba.

1988 – USS Vincennes shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf

Birthdays
321 – Valentinian I, Roman emperor
1883 – Franz Kafka
1886 – ADM Raymond A. Spruance
1940 – Lamar Alexander
1941 – Gloria Allred
1952 – Laura Branigan
1956 – Montel Williams
1962 – Tom Cruise
1971 – Julian Assange

Deaths
1035 – Robert the Magnificent, Duke of Normandy
1863 – Generals Richard Brooke Garnett, William Barksdale, Samuel Kosciuszko Zook, Colonel George Hull Ward.
1887 – Clay Allison
1935 – André Citroën
1971 – Jim Morrison
1978 – James Daly
1981 – Ross Martin
1989 – Jim Backus
1993 – Don Drysdale
2007 – Boots Randolph
2012 – Andy Griffith

July 2

1494 – The Treaty of Tordesillas is ratified. This divided newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese and the Spanish along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands

1776 – The Continental Congress adopts the Lee Resolution severing ties with the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1881 – Charles J. Guiteau shoots and fatally wounds President Garfield, who dies of complications on September 19.

1921 – President Harding signs the Knox–Porter Resolution formally ending the war between the United States and Germany.

1937 – Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan disappear over the Pacific ocean

1962 – The first Walmart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas.

2002 – Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon.

2008 – Íngrid Betancourt, a member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia, is released from captivity after being held for six and a half years by FARC.

Birthdays
419 – Valentinian III, Roman emperor
1908 – Justice Thurgood Marshall
1916 – Ken (Festus) Curtis
1922 – Pierre Cardin
1939 – John H. Sununu
1946 – Ron Silver
1986 – Lindsay Lohan

Deaths
1566 – Nostradamus
1850 – Sir Robert Peel
1961 – Ernest Hemingway
1973 – Betty Grable
1977 – Vladimir Nabokov
1989 – Andrei Gromyko
1991 – Lee Remick
1993 – Fred Gwynne
1999 – Mario Puzo
2016 – Elie Wiesel

July 1

1097 – The army of the First Crusade under the command of Prince Behemond, defeats the army of Sultan Kilij Arslan at Dorylaeum

1431 – Forces of King John of Castile engage those of Sultan Muhammed of Granada at La Higueruela scoring a minor victory.

1862 – The Battle of Malvern Hill takes place, last of the ‘Seven Days Battles’ of the Union Peninsula Campaign.

1863 – The Battle of Gettysburg begins

1898 – The Battle of San Juan Hill is fought in Santiago de Cuba

1908 – SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.

1916 – On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded.

1942 – First Battle of El Alamein begins

1963 – ZIP codes are introduced for United States mail

Birthdays
1725 – Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French general Commander of the French expeditionary force in the Revolution
1872 – Louis Blériot, French pilot
1902 – William Wyler, Film director
1916 – Olivia de Havilland
1934 – Jamie Farr, (Corporal Klinger)
1935 – David Prowse, (Darth Vader)
1941 – Twyla Tharp, dancer
1942 – Geneviève Bujold, Andraé Crouch
1945 – Debbie Harry
1952 – Dan Aykroyd
1961 – Diana, Princess of Wales
1967 – Pamela Anderson

Deaths
1523 – Jan van Essen and Hendrik Vos, first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake in Brussels
1860 – Charles Goodyear
1884 – Allan Pinkertone
1896 – Harriet Beecher Stowe
1934 – Ernst Röhm, German Sturm Abteilung commander
1974 – Juan Perón
1983 – Buckminster Fuller, architect
1995 – Wolfman Jack
1996 – Margaux Hemingway
2000 – Walter Matthau
2009 – Karl Malden

June 30

1688 – The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William, Prince of Orange, which would culminate in the British ‘Glorious Revolution’. The letter informed William that if he were to land in England with a small army, the signatories and their allies would rise up and support him.  The next year, The English Bill of Rights would be come law, which was part of the basis from where our current Bill Of Rights came from a hundred years later.

1805 – The U.S. Congress organizes the Michigan Territory.

1864 – President Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”. Apparently a guy named Sam got all riled up about it.

1905 – Albert Einstein sends the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, in which he introduces special relativity, for publication in Annalen der Physik.

1908 – The Tunguska Event, the largest impact event on Earth in human recorded history, resulting in a massive explosion over Eastern Siberia.

1921 – President Harding appoints former President Taft as Chief Justice of the United States.

1934 – The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler’s violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.

1944 – The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the peninsula and  port to American forces.

1985 – Thirty-nine American hostages from the hijacked TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.

1990 – Der Deutschen Einheit, East Germany and West Germany merge their economies.

1997 – The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to China.

Birthdays
1917 – Susan Hayward, American actress, Lena Horne, American singer
1936 – Tony Musante, American actor
1942 – Robert Ballard, American oceanographer
1957 – Sterling Marlin, American race car driver
1959 – Vincent D’Onofrio, American actor
1966 – Mike Tyson, American boxer

Deaths
2003 – Buddy Hackett, American actor
2009 – Harve Presnell, American actor
2012 – Yitzhak Shamir, Israeli politician

June 29

1950 – President Truman authorizes a sea blockade of Korea.

1956 – The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 is signed by President Eisenhower, creating the United States Interstate Highway System.

1972 – The Supreme Court rules in Furman v. Georgia that the then current method the death penalty was imposed was unconstitutional cruel and unusual punishment.

1974 – Mikhail Baryshnikov defects from the Soviet Union

1975 – Steve Wozniak tests his first prototype of Apple I computer.

Birthdays
1801 – Frédéric Bastiat
1901 – Nelson Eddy
1919 – Slim Pickens
1920 – Ray Harryhausen
1944 – Gary Busey

Deaths
1520 – Montezuma II
1967 – Jayne Mansfield
1978 – Bob Crane
1995 – Lana Turner
2002 – Rosemary Clooney
2007 – Fred Saberhagen

June 28

1098 – The army of the First Crusade under the command of Prince Behemond of Taranto, defeats the moslem army of Kerbogha of Mosul.

1776 – The Battle of Sullivan’s Island ends with the American victory. The  Battle of Monmouth Courthouse is a draw.

1838 – Victoria is crowned Queen of the U.K.

1846 – Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone, and now you know why it’s called that.

1865 – The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.

1894 – Labor Day becomes an official US holiday.

1902 – The U.S. Congress passes the Spooner Act, authorizing President Theodore Roosevelt to acquire rights from Colombia for the Panama Canal.

1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo

1919 – The Treaty of Versailles is signed, officially ending World War I.

1950 – Seoul falls to North Korean forces

Birthdays
1491 – Henry VIII of England
1577 – Peter Paul Rubens
1703 – John Wesley
1926 – Mel Brooks
1932 – Pat Morita
1938 – Leon Panetta
1971 – Elon Musk

Deaths
1836 – James Madison
1880 – Texas Jack Omohundro
1975 – Rod Serling
2010 – Robert Byrd

June 27

1556 – The thirteen Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake near London for their Protestant beliefs.

1864 – Confederate forces defeat Union forces during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain

1941 – German troops capture the city of Białystok during Operation Barbarossa.

1950 – The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War.

1957 – Hurricane Audrey makes landfall near the Texas–Louisiana border, killing over 400 people

1976 – Air France Flight 139 (Tel Aviv-Athens-Paris) is hijacked en route to Paris by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.

1977 – France grants independence to Djibouti.

1994 – Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release sarin gas in Matsumoto, Japan, killing seven.

Birthdays
1838 – Paul Mauser
1880 – Helen Keller
1907 – John McIntire
1927 – Bob Keeshan
1938 – Bruce Babbitt
1975 – Tobey Maguire

Deaths
1844 – Hyrum & Joseph Smith
2001 – Jack Lemmon
2002 – John Entwistle
2005 – Shelby Foote

June 26

4  – Emperor Augustus adopts Tiberius.

1830 – William IV becomes king of Britain and Hanover

1870 – Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the U.S.

1906 – The first Grand Prix motor race is held at Le Mans

1917 – American Expeditionary Forces begin to arrive in France.

1918 – Allied forces under General John J. Pershing and James Harbord defeat Imperial German forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince in the Battle of Belleau Wood.

1934 – President Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, establishing credit unions.

1942 – The first flight of the Grumman F6F Hellcat.

1945 – The United Nations Charter is signed

1948 – The first supply flights begin during the Berlin Blockade.

1953 – Lavrentiy “Show me the man and I’ll show you the crime” Beria, head of the MVD, is arrested by Nikita Khrushchev

1963 – U.S. President Kennedy states “Ich bin ein Berliner” in West Berlin.

1997 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Reno v. ALCU that the Communications Decency Act is unconstitutional.

2013 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in United States v. Windsor the Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional

2015 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Obergefell v. Hodges that under the 14th amendment, the states must recognize same sex marriages.

Birthdays
1819 – Abner Doubleday
1898 – Lewis Burwell ‘Chesty’ Puller
1904 – Peter Lorre
1909 – Colonel Tom Parker
1922 – Eleanor Parker
1970 – Chris O’Donnell

Deaths
1541 – Francisco Pizarro
1830 – George IV of the United Kingdom
2003 – Strom Thurmond
2007 – Liz Claiborne
2014 – Howard Baker

June 25

1530 – At the Diet of Augsburg the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany.

1788 – Virginia becomes the tenth state to ratify the Constitution.

1876 – At the Battle of the Little Bighorn, troops of the 7th Cavalry under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer are wiped out by the Sioux.

1940 – The French armistice with Germany comes into effect.

1943 – Jews in the Częstochowa Ghetto in Poland stage an uprising against the Nazis

1948 – The Berlin airlift begins.

1950 – North Korean troops begin the invasion of South Korea

1996 – The Khobar Towers apartments in Saudi Arabia is truck-bombed, killing 19 U.S. servicemen.

Birthdays
1900 – Earl Louis Mountbatten
1901 – H.R.-Chief Lone Bear- Bartle
1903 – George Orwell
1925 – June Lockhart
1927 – Chuck Smith
1945 – Carly Simon
1947 – Jimmie Dyn-o-mite Walker

Deaths
1533 – Queen Mary Tudor of France
1876 – James Calhoun, Boston Custer, George Custer, Thomas Custer, Myles Keogh (see Battle of the Little Bighorn above)
1995 – Chief Justice Warren E. Burger
1997 – Jacques Cousteau
2003 – Lester Maddox
2009 – Farrah Fawcett, Michael Jackson
2015 – Patrick Macnee

June 24

1314 – The Battle of Bannockburn concludes with a decisive victory by Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce

1497 – John Cabot lands in North America at Newfoundland

1813 – Battle of Beaver Dams; A British and Indian combined force defeats the United States Army.

1916 – Mary Pickford becomes the first female film star to sign a million-dollar contract.

1948 – The Soviet Union begins blocking overland travel between West Germany and West Berlin.

Birthdays
1813 – Henry Ward Beecher
1842 – Ambrose Bierce
1850 – Herbert Kitchener
1895 – Jack Dempsey
1901 – Chuck Taylor
1915 – Fred Hoyle
1942 – Mick Fleetwood, Michele Lee
1945 – George Pataki
1947 – Peter Weller
1950 – Nancy Allen

Deaths
1314 – Earl Gilbert de Clare, Baron Robert de Clifford (See Battle of Bannockburn above)
1519 – Lucrezia Borgia
1908 – Grover Cleveland
1987 – Jackie Gleason
1997 – Brian Keith
2014 – Eli Wallach

June 23

1683 – William Penn signs a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.

1780 – American General Nathaniel Greene, commanding 1500 men of the New Jersey Militia defeats a 5000 man force of British Army troopsd and Hessian mercenaries at the Battle of Springfield.

1865 – Confederate Brigadier General Stand Watie surrenders his army at Fort Towson in the Oklahoma and Indian Territory

1868 – Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the “Type-Writer.”

1914 – Pancho Villa defeats Victoriano Huerta at Zacatecas

1961 – The Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent, comes into force

Birthdays
47BC – Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar more well known as Caesarion, son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar.
1912 – Alan Turing
1927 – Bob Fosse
1929 – June Carter Cash
1964 – Joss Whedon

Deaths
79AD – Emperor Vespasian
1707 – John Mill
1998 – Maureen O’Sullivan
2011 – Peter Falk
2015 – Dick Van Patten

June 22

1633 – The Holy Office in Rome forces Galileo Galilei to recant his view that the Sun, not the Earth, is the center of the Universe in the form he presented it in.

1807 – In the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair, the British warship HMS Leopard attacks and boards the American frigate USS Chesapeake.

1870 – The United States Department of Justice is created by the U.S. Congress.

1898 – 6,000 men of the U.S. Fifth Army Corps begins landing at Daiquirí, Cuba

1940 – France is forced to sign the Second Compiègne armistice with Germany, in the same railroad car in which the Germans signed the Armistice in 1918.

1941 – Nazi Germany invades the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa.

1942 – The Pledge of Allegiance is formally adopted by US Congress.

1944 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs into law the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill.

1945 – The Battle of Okinawa comes to an end.

1990 – Checkpoint Charlie is dismantled in Berlin.

Birthdays
1903 – John Dillinger
1906 – Anne Morrow Lindbergh
1933 – Dianne Feinstein
1936 – Kris Kristofferson
1943 – Brit Hume
1949 – Meryl Streep, Lindsay Wagner, Elizabeth Warren
1953 – Cyndi Lauper
1954 – Freddie Prinze

Deaths
1945 – Generals Mitsuru Ushijima, Isamu Chō, IJA by ritual Seppuku
(See -The Battle of Okinawa, above)
1965 – David O. Selznick
1969 – Judy Garland
1987 – Fred Astaire
1988 – Dennis Day
1993 – Pat Nixon
2008 – George Carlin

June 21

1788 – New Hampshire becomes the ninth state and last necessary state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, thereby making it law of the land.

1898 – The United States captures Guam from Spain.

1900 – China formally declares war on the United States, Britain, Germany, France and Japan.

1942 – Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.
A Japanese submarine surfaces near off the coast of Oregon, firing at Fort Stevens.

1945 – The Battle of Okinawa ends

1982 – John Hinckley is found not guilty by reason of insanity for the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan.

2001 – A federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia, indicts 13 Saudis and a Lebanese in the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia

2004 – SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded space plane to achieve spaceflight.

Birthdays

1921 – Jane Russell
1925 – Maureen Stapleton
1932 – Lalo Schifrin
1933 – Bernie Kopell
1940 – Mariette Hartley
1942 – CPT Togo D. West, Jr.
1947 – Meredith Baxter
1979 – Chris Pratt

Deaths
1527 – Niccolò Machiavelli
1940 – Smedley Butler
1980 – Bert Kaempfert
2003 – Leon Uris
2008 – Scott Kalitta
2018 – Charles Krauthammer

June  20

1782 – The U.S. Congress adopts the Great Seal of the United States.

1837 – Princess  Alexandrina Victoria of Kent and Strathearn becomes Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1863 – The state – West Virginia – a split off of counties that do not adhere to the Confederacy, is admitted as the 35th state.

1877 – Alexander Graham Bell installs the world’s first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario. And away we went until we’ve ended up here with smart cell phones.

1893 – Lizzie Borden is acquitted of the murders of her father and stepmother.

1900 –The Imperial Chinese Army, in direct support of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists movement, called the ‘Boxer Rebellion’,  begins a 55-day siege of the Legation Quarter in Beijing, China.

1944 – The Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes with a decisive U.S. naval victory. The naval air battle is known as the “Great Marianas Turkey Shoot”.

The experimental V-2 rocket reaches an altitude of 110 miles, becoming the first man-made object to reach outer space.

1945 – The United States Secretary of State approves the transfer of Wernher von Braun and his team of Nazi rocket scientists to the U.S.

1972 –  An 18½-minute gap  is noticed in the tape recording of the conversations between President Richard Nixon and his advisers.

1975 – The film Jaws is released in the United States

Birthdays
1909 – Errol Flynn
1924 – Chet Atkins
1925 – Audie Murphy
1933 – Danny Aiello
1935 – Len Dawson
1942 – Brian Wilson
1952 – John Goodman

Deaths
840 – Emperor Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne
1837 – King William IV of the United Kingdom (see accession of Queen Victoria above)

June 19

325 – The original Nicene Creed is adopted at the First Council of Nicaea.

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.

We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end.

We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father. With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

1862 – The U.S. Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying the Supreme Court’s decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford.

1865 – Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 41 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.

Births

1623 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and physicist, author of Pascal’s wager.

1914 – Lester Flatt, American bluegrass singer-songwriter

Deaths

1867 – Maximilian I of the Second Mexican Empire is executed by a firing squad in Querétaro, Querétaro.

1953 –Spies for the communist Soviet Union, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed in the electric chair at Sing Sing, in New York. After the fall of the Soviet Union and release of documents by the Russian government, their treason is confirmed.

2017 – Otto Warmbier, American college student detained in North Korea