Schools that Allow Teachers to Carry Guns are Extremely Safe

John R. Lott
Crime Prevention Research Center

Date Written: April 25, 2019

Abstract
After the Columbine school shooting 20 years ago, one of the more significant changes in how we protect students has been the advance of legislation that allows teachers to carry guns at schools. There are two obvious questions: Does letting teachers carry create dangers? Might they deter attackers? Twenty states currently allow teachers and staff to carry guns to varying degrees on school property, so we don’t need to guess how the policy would work. There has yet to be a single case of someone being wounded or killed from a shooting, let alone a mass public shooting, between 6 AM and midnight at a school that lets teachers carry guns. Fears of teachers carrying guns in terms of such problems as students obtaining teachers guns have not occurred at all, and there was only one accidental discharge outside of school hours with no one was really harmed. While there have not been any problems at schools with armed teachers, the number of people killed at other schools has increased significantly – doubling between 2001 and 2008 versus 2009 and 2018.

SSRN-id3377801  PDF File.


Introduction
Police are very important in fighting crime, but a single officer in uniform faces an almost
impossible task in stopping mass public shootings.1 Officers become the first targets in these
attacks, as attackers know that if they kill the officer, they will have free reign to continue their
massacre. Even if officers aren’t in uniform, attackers may be able to guess from their behavior
that they are standing guard.
Putting a guard in every school is also very costly. Florida is spending over $400 million a year to
put one police officer in each public school.2
Increasing funding for mental health services has its benefits, but it is hard for mental-health
professionals to identify patients who pose a serious violent threat. It’s common for mass killers
to have already been seeing psychiatrists before their attacks. But mental health professionals
are often unable to identify when someone is at risk of becoming violent. Psychiatrists
overlooked the dangers posed by Ivan Lopez (the recent Fort Hood shooter), Adam Lanza
(Sandy Hook Elementary), James Holmes (“Batman” movie theater) and Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia
Tech).3 Indeed, from January 1998 through May 2018, 42 percent of mass public shooters were
seeing mental health care professionals before their attacks. In only one of those cases had the
killer previously been identified as a danger to others.4 We can’t foresee every attack, so what’s
our backup plan when violence does occur?
Within hours of mass public shootings, even before we know how the shooter obtained his gun,
there are immediate calls for laws such as universal background checks. Ironically, there is not
one mass public shooting this century that would have been stopped by universal background
checks, even with a perfectly enforced law.5
Outside of arming teachers and staff, there’s only so much that can be done to secure our
schools. Schools have multiple entrances to facilitate smooth evacuations in case of fires or
other emergencies. Even if school doors are set up so that they can be opened only from the
inside, it’s easy enough to have someone on the inside to open a door. Even where there is only
one attacker, doors can be propped open.
Having a single entrance with a metal detector creates its own safety hazards by leading to
crowded bottlenecks of people that present easy targets to attackers. Metal detectors won’t
stop someone from shooting their way into a school.
But if attackers don’t know who is carrying a concealed firearm, they won’t know whom they
need to attack first.
Perhaps because police understand the difficulty of their jobs, they are strongly in favor of
abolishing gun-free school zones. Shortly after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in
2012, PoliceOne, a 450,000-member private organization of police (380,000 active, full-time
and 70,000 retired officers), surveyed its members and found that 77 percent supported arming
teachers and/or school staff.6 Eighty-six percent of the officers believed that casualties in mass
public shootings would have been reduced or altogether prevented if legally-armed citizens had
been able to carry guns.7
Allowing teachers and staff to carry concealed handguns is nothing new in the United States,
and hasn’t created any problems. Before the early 1990s, there were no state laws specifically
restricting concealed carry on K-12 property so that teacher carry may have been common for
much of our history.
School insurance rates are no higher for schools that allow teachers to carry. “From what I’ve
seen in Utah, rates have not gone up because of guns being allowed,” says Curt Oda, former
president of the Utah Association of Independent Insurance Agents.8 An additional survey of
schools in Arkansas, Kansas, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas also did not indicate that teacher
carry had caused an increase in insurance premiums.9 Insurance fees significantly declined in
Kansas.
We now turn to the data on the relative safety of schools with armed teachers.
The Basics
We collected data on all K-12 school shootings from January 2000 through August 2018 to
determine the rate at which shootings have occurred at schools that allow teachers to carry.
We seek to measure the risks of teachers carrying guns and also to ascertain whether arming
instructors might deter potential attackers. The issue is whether it makes a difference between
schools having signs saying “this school is a gun-free zone” or “Please be aware that certain
staff members at Okay Public Schools [Oklahoma] can be legally armed and may use whatever
force is necessary to protect our students.”10 “ATTENTION: Authorized staff are legally armed
and may use whatever force is necessary to protect students,” are the way signs read in
Idaho.11
Our primary sources for cases of school shootings and lockdowns are the National School Safety
Center’s (NSSC) report, “School Associated Violent Deaths,” and the Washington Post’s
database of school shootings.12 The NSCC report covers all known shootings and other violent
deaths at schools from 1992 to 2010. For more recent cases, the Post launched a database that
tracked incidents of gun violence during school hours since the Columbine High massacre in
1999. To achieve complete coverage of the school shooting cases, we reviewed the following
sources to find any missing cases: Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC),13 Everytown for Gun
Safety,14 and schoolshootingdatabase.com.15 These open-source databases, in addition to law
enforcement reports, and our searches, emails, and calls (including to schools and police
departments) allowed us to compile a school shooting database during the period from 2000 to
2018 that we examined. The data is available as an Excel file from the author (Appendix 1).
Twenty states currently allow at least some teachers and staff to carry, although the rules vary.
Utah, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and parts of Oregon allow all permitted teachers and staff
to carry, without any additional training requirements (Table 1).16 Other states leave it to the
discretion of the superintendent or school board. As of December 2018, 315 Texas school
districts have teachers who carry, over 30 percent of all school districts.17 That is up from 217
school districts in June 2018.18 By September 2018, Ohio teachers in 82 or the state’s 88
counties had received training to carry a concealed handgun.19 At the other end, there are
states such as Colorado and Florida where in 2018 there were only 30 and 13 school districts
respectively that had teachers carrying guns.
Clark Aposhian, the senior member of Utah’s Concealed Firearm Review Board, estimates
that roughly 5 percent of teachers in his state carry permitted concealed handguns at school.
Support staff — including janitors, librarians, secretaries, and lunch staff — carry at a higher
estimated rate of between 10 and 12 percent.20
There is no comprehensive list of school districts that allow teachers to carry. Since most states
that allow teacher to carry leave it up to the discretion of individual schools and these
schools have granted teachers the ability to carry in different years, we contacted each
institution that experienced a shooting and where questions remained about what had been
the school’s firearms policy (see Appendix 2).
We found 306 cases with gunshots on school property, with 188 involving either a death or
an injury and 48 committing suicide. If you include the non-suicide deaths or injuries of the
perpetrators, 193 people died and 267 were either wounded or injured. Police officers
accidentally firing their guns accounted for four cases.
While still small compared to the number of students, the rate of shootings and people killed
by these shootings has increased significantly since 2000. The yearly average number of
people who died between 2001 and 2008 versus 2009 and 2018 has doubled (whether or not
one excludes gang fights and suicides).

Non-gang, non-suicide school shootings accounted for 155 cases, with 38 of those being
accidental discharges. Gangs accounted for 17 cases, with another ten likely involving guns.
While most of these shootings occurred within the schools, 66 took place outside of school
buildings, mainly parking lots.
Two hundred and fourteen attacks took place between 6 AM and 6 PM, with 39 during the rest
of the day. Suicides are much more likely to occur during the 6 AM to 6 PM period. We couldn’t
determine the time for five cases, but of the rest, 41 were from 6 AM to 6 PM, and just two
during the rest of the day. Only six shootings took place between midnight and 6 AM.
A couple of facts immediately become apparent. There hasn’t been a single mass public
shooting in any school that allows teachers and staff to carry guns legally. Since at least as far
back as January 2000, not a single shooting-related death or injury has occurred during or
anywhere near class hours on the property of a school that allows teachers to carry. If there is
going to be a school shooting at a school with teachers carrying guns, it will most likely be
during hours when no teachers are present. Indeed, at a school where teachers can carry guns,
the one single shooting where someone was shot in any way occurred when one would expect
that surely no teachers would be present.
■ On July 21, 2017, at about 2:30 AM, a 19-year-old man shot an 18-year-old man in the
parking lot of Spanish Fork High School in Utah.21
Beyond that, there has been one accidental discharge and one attempted suicide, both in Utah
and both had no one harmed. In Rhode Island in 2003, a student fired a gun once harming no
one. While teachers were theoretically allowed to carry at schools, the state very rarely issued
permits to carry. Rhode Island had just 2,288 permits in June 2018, representing 0.28% of the
adult population (nationally, 7.14% of adults had permits).22 The vast majority of these permits
appear granted to retired police officers. No record is available on whether any teachers in the
state have permits, but presumably, such permits would be rare.
Thus, if you were to redraw either Figures 1 or 2 by excluding hours when no teachers are
around, for schools with teachers carrying guns you would get a perfectly flat line that was zero
for all years.
There might typically be statistical tests at this point in a paper that would compare the rate
that people are killed or wounded in shooting attacks at schools that allow teachers to carry
versus ones that don’t or a comparison of mass public shootings at the two types of schools,
but here we can make a straightforward comparison. Over 19 years we have studied, those
rates are zero for schools that allow teachers to carry and obviously not zero for all the other
schools. With an average of 58 million school-age students from 5 to 18 years old per year
during the period that we studied, the average rate of death or injury from a shooting is 0.039
per 100,000 students across all schools (so the rate is even higher among schools that don’t
allow teachers to carry), while it is 0 per 100,000 in schools with armed teachers.
Adding up the number of 5 to 18-year-olds in just six of these states where school districts
allow teachers to carry (Texas, Ohio, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Utah, and Oklahoma)
gives a total of 3.95 million, or roughly 6.8 percent of 5 to 18-year-olds in the entire US.
Excluding the hours between midnight and 6 AM, if these six states accounted for the share
deaths and injuries that corresponds to their share of the 5 to 18-year-old population, they
should have had 13 deaths and 18 injuries. Instead, they have zero deaths and one person
with a minor scrap from a piece of broken toilet.
The Washington Post has also collected on school shutdowns overshooting events from April
1999 through December 2018, so their cases involve events that occur during or immediately
before school hours. Out of 229 school shutdowns, they have three cases at schools that allow
teachers to carry, the attempted suicide at the Utah school in 2016 that was mentioned above,
the Rhode Island case, and a case at the Union Middle School in Utah in 2016 that occurred
near the school and thus wasn’t included in our data.23
Review
Only one accidental discharge by a permit holder on K-12 property occurred.24 It occurred in
Utah in November 2014 and resulted in only a very minor injury. A teacher discharged her gun
in a faculty bathroom after school hours, and she was slightly injured when fragments from the
toilet struck her.25 A few other accidents have occurred during firearm training classes held
outside of school hours. There has never been a case of a student getting a hold of a teacher’s
or school staffer’s gun.
People worry that students will discover which teachers or staff members are carrying guns. But
carrying in a school isn’t any different than carrying in other places. It’s a very normal thing in
many parts of the country, and you would never know that people are carrying in grocery
stores, movie theaters, or restaurants. In 2018, over 17.25 million Americans had permits to
legally carry a concealed handgun (Lott, 2018). Outside of California and New York, about 8.63
percent of the adult population can carry.
Others fear that permit holders in stopping these mass public shootings will accidentally shoot a
bystander or that when the police arrive, they will shoot the permit holder. But despite permit
holders recently stopping dozens of what would have been mass public shootings in malls,
churches, schools, and businesses neither have ever happened.26 Nor have any of those
teachers or staff committed crimes on school property, and permit holders tend to be
extremely law-abiding. Permit holders lose their permit for any firearms violation at
thousandths or tens of thousandths of one percent (Lott, 2010, 241-252).27
The term “gun-free zone” is what should make people nervous, since police virtually always
arrive after an attack has occurred. A survey of economists and criminologists who have
published peer-reviewed empirical studies on gun control finds that by more than a two-to-one
margin they believe that gun-free zones are more likely to attract criminals than they are to
deter them (Lott and Mauser, 2016).
Killers consciously select defenseless targets. Just look at the statements by the attackers in the
2015 Charleston, S.C., church shooting and the 2012 theater shooting in Aurora, Colorado.28 A
recent case ISIS sympathizer planned to massacre a church in Detroit. The FBI recorded him
saying, “It’s easy, and a lot of people go there. Plus, people are not allowed to carry guns in
church.”29
Since 1950, all but seven mass public shootings in America have occurred where we ban citizens
from carrying guns.30 To put it differently, 98 percent of the cases where four or more people
have been killed in a public place and not part of some other crime.
In Europe, which has suffered three of the five worst K-12 school shootings in the world, every
single mass public shooting has occurred in a gun-free zone.31
Conclusion
Often gun control debates involve things that might go wrong if people are allowed to have
guns. But we don’t need to guess. Schools that have allowed teachers to carry guns have been
remarkably safe. There has yet to be a single case of someone being wounded or killed from a
shooting, let alone a mass public shooting, at a school that lets teachers carry guns. Fears of
teachers carrying guns in terms of such problems as students obtaining teachers guns have not
occurred at all, and there was only one accidental discharge outside of school hours, with no
harm. The average rate of death or injury from shooting is 0.039 per 100,000 students across all
schools (so the rate is higher among schools that don’t allow teachers to carry), while it is 0 per
100,000 in schools with armed teachers. While there have not been any problems at schools
with armed teachers, the number of people killed at other schools has increased significantly –
doubling from 2001 and 2008 to 2009 and 2018.
References
Lott, John R.. Jr., More Guns, Less Crime, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois, 3rd
edition, 2010.
Lott, John R.. Jr., Concealed Carry Permit Holders Across the United States: 2018, Crime
Prevention Research Center Working Paper, 2018
(https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3233904).
Lott, John R.. Jr., “Should schools have teachers carry guns?” Health Behavior Research: Vol. 1:
No. 3. (https://doi.org/10.4148/2572-1836.1024).
Lott, John R.. Jr., and William R. Landes, “Acts of Terror with Guns: Multiple Victim Shootings,”
chapter 5 in John R. Lott, Jr., The Bias Against Guns, Regnery Publishing: Washington, D.C.,
2003.
Lott, John R., Jr., and Gary Mauser, “Research Perceptions of Lawful, Concealed Carry of
Handguns,” Regulation, Summer 2016 Jr. and Gary Mauser, “Research Perceptions of
Lawful, Concealed Carry of Handguns,” Regulation, Summer 2016
Table 1: Rules for State that have Teachers Carrying Concealed Handguns
State Brief description
Alabama Bans possessing a weapon on school grounds if the carrier has “intent to do
bodily harm.“ Some school districts have gotten around this by putting a
prohibition in employment contracts. Alabama Code Title 13A. Criminal Code
§ 13A-11-72
Arkansas February 26, 2018, twenty teachers in Clarksville, Arkansas are
carrying concealed handguns. Also Heber Springs School District started in
Fall 2018.
Zach Crenshaw, “Teachers allowed to carry firearms at 20 schools in
Arkansas,” Fox 13 Little Rock, Arkansas, February 26, 2018
(https://www.fox13memphis.com/top-stories/teachers-allowed-to-carryfirearms-
at-20-schools-in-arkansas/707734025).
California California allowed concealed carry on school grounds until it passed a law in
2015 that required the approval of the school administrator. However,
beginning on October 14, 2017 a new law took away that authority from
school administrators (more here). Up until that date, five school districts
allowed teachers or staff to carry concealed handguns. Kingsburg Joint Union
High School District in Fresno County, Folsom Cordova School
District, Kingsburg Joint Union High School District, and two other districts,
though we haven’t identified those other districts. The Kern High School
District Board of Trustees voted to allow teachers to carry guns in June 2016,
but it doesn’t appear that the action ever went into effect.
Colorado As of July 2018, at least 30 school districts and charter schools allow teachers
to carry guns, though this information is from the state’s largest insurer of
schools so it does not provide a complete total. In addition, the insurer does
not provide a list of those school districts. Some of the ones that publicly
acknowledge that teachers and staff are armed include: Hanover School
District, Fleming School District, “some” other school districts, and Briggsdale
School District. No training requirements are contained in state law.
Elizabeth Hernandez, “At least 30 Colorado school districts and charter
schools allow teachers to carry guns, but no statewide training standards
regulate them,” Denver Post, July 8, 2018
(https://www.denverpost.com/2018/07/08/colorado-teacher-guns-schoolsclassroom/).
Florida After the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in February 2018, some
school districts began allowing staff to carry. By August 2018, “Thirteen
school districts, mostly rural ones, are arming volunteer administrators,
custodians and other non-classroom staff members, who get a one-time $500
stipend. The law bans teachers unless they are former police officers, active
military members or Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps instructors.“
Associated Press, “School Shooting-Florida-Guardians Story,” US News,
August 9, 2018 (https://www.usnews.com/news/beststates/
florida/articles/2018-08-07/apnewsbreak-florida-schools-struggle-tomeet-
security-rule).
Georgia Laurens County
Alrinda Broady, “ARMED TEACHERS BECOME A REALITY IN GEORGIA,” WSB
Radio, May 4, 2018 (https://www.wsbradio.com/news/localeducation/
armed-teachers-become-realitygeorgia/
z0S3TawrIJodR42r6nOL6K/#6766d301-91d2-49cc-b5ecaed88229d0cb).
Idaho Teachers can carry with school trustees’ approval. “A handful” of school
districts allow staffers and teachers to carry.
Devin Bodkin, “IDAHO SCHOOLS USE A RANGE OF SAFETY PROTOCOLS,
INCLUDING GUNS,” Idaho News, Feb 22, 2018
(https://www.idahoednews.org/news/idaho-schools-use-range-safetyprotocols-
including-guns/).
Indiana February 23, 2018: “most don’t. more might start.” One example is
the Portland, Indiana school district.
Kentucky Teachers can carry with school board approval. Example: Pike County School
District
Minnesota Teachers can carry with approval of School Superintendent. Some school
districts in the state do it. Maria Elena Baca, “Little-known Minnesota
exemption allows guns in schools,” Star Tribune, December 201, 2012
(http://www.startribune.com/little-known-minnesota-exemption-allowsguns-
in-schools/184205071/).
Missouri Teachers can carry with school board approval. As of February 2018, some of
the school districts include: the Fairview school district, School of the
Osage, Warsaw School District. In March 2018, Crocker School Board
Approved Arming Teachers.
Kaitlyn Schwers, “One Missouri Ozarks district is discussing arming teachers,
another already has them,” The Kansas City Star, Feb 28, 2018
(https://www.kansascity.com/news/state/missouri/article202572379.html).
Montana Teachers can carry with school trustees’ permission. In 2017, Belfry, Custer,
and Lima school districts allowed teachers and staff members to carry.
Another school district allowed a former teacher to carry. Two others allow
current staff members to carry, but they weren’t currently carrying.
New
Hampshire
“The New Hampshire Attorney General’s Office says it agrees with legal
experts who maintain that school officials in the Granite State cannot legally
enforce firearm bans on school grounds.“
Tim Camerato, “N.H. AG: School Gun Bans Unlawful,” Valley News, January
28, 2018 (https://www.vnews.com/Lebanon-Gun-Policy-Leads-to-Further-
Discussion-About-Guns-in-Schools-15136385).
Ohio Teachers can carry with school board approval. By the end of 2016 that
number was over 175 school districts. More have clearly adopted this policy
since then. Teachers in at least 82 of Ohio 88 counties have received training
to carry guns.
Adrian Burns, “More Ohio schools arm teachers to shoot attackers,”
Telegraph Forum, November 6, 2016
(https://www.bucyrustelegraphforum.com/story/news/local/2016/11/06/ohi
o-schools-arm-teachers-shoot-attackers/93292606/).
Oregon Any permit holders may carry on school grounds, but many school districts
prevent employees from carrying by including a prohibition in their
employment contracts. An example of a school district that allows teachers
and staff to carry is the St. Helens School District (about 30 miles Northwest
of Portland).
Rhode Island The state used to allow with a state concealed weapons permit, but as of
August 29th 2018 it was banned with a new policy implemented by the
governor.
Kaitie Davis, “New policy bans concealed weapons in RI schools,” NBC
Channel 10 in Providence, August 29, 2018
(https://turnto10.com/news/local/raimondo-and-education-commissionerannounce-
firearm-ban-in-all-schools).
South
Dakota
The “school sentinels” law authorizes districts to create, establish and
supervise the arming of school employees, hired security personnel or
volunteers. Two school districts as of May 2018: Mellette and Tri-Valley
School. http://sdlegislature.gov/docs/legsession/2013/Bills/HB1087ENR.pdf
Tennessee State law allows certain school employees to carry a firearm on school
grounds if they are licensed, meet certain qualifications, and have written
authorization from authorities.
Texas By December 2019 the number of school districts had increased to 315, more
than 30 percent of Texas school districts.
Camille Phillips, “More Than 30 Percent Of Texas School Districts Allow
Educators To Carry Guns,” KUT (Austin’s NPR Station), January 14, 2019
(https://www.kut.org/post/more-30-percent-texas-school-districts-alloweducators-
carry-guns).
Utah Any teacher or staff member with a concealed handgun permit can carry.
Washington Eight schools in the Toppenish School District have nineteen
administratorswho carry. The Kiona-Benton School District also has a similar
policy.
Wyoming In 2017, the state passed a law that left the decision up to the local school
boards. 24 hours of training required. “The Park County School District No. 6
board in the town of Cody voted 4-2” on April 17, 2018.

Appendix 1: List of School Shootings from January 2000 to August 2018
Date City State Name of School # Killed on
School Property
# Injured on
School Property Suicide Gangrelated
1/19/00 New Port
Richey FL Ridgewood High School 1 0 0 0
1/26/00 Merced CA Alicia Reyes Elementary School 0 0 0 0
2/14/00 Chicago IL Duke Ellington Elementary
School 0 1 0 0
2/24/00 Tecumseh OK Tecumseh High School 0 0 0 0
2/29/00 Flint MI Buell Elementary School 1 0 0 0
5/10/00 Sierra Vista AZ Carmichael Elementary School 1 0 0 0
5/26/00 Lake Worth FL Lake Worth Middle School 1 0 0 0
7/17/00 Renton WA Dimmitt Middle School 0 0 0 0
9/5/00 Bidwell OH Bidwell Porter Elementary 1 0 1 (later at
home) 0
9/18/00 Mount
Healthy OH Mount Healthy North Junior
High 0 0 0 0
9/26/00 New Orleans LA Carter G. Woodson Middle
School 0 1 0 0
10/23/00 Los Angeles CA Western Academy Community
Education Center 1 0 0 uncertain
12/1/00 Granada Hills
(Los Angeles) CA Granada High School 0 0 1 0
1/29/01 Arlington TX Boles Junior High School 0 0 1 0
2/6/01 Dallas TX Pearl C. Anderson Middle
School 0 1 0 0
3/2/01 San Diego CA High School 0 0 1 0
3/5/01 Santee CA Santana High School 2 13 0 0
3/7/01 Williamsport PA Bishop Neumann Junior-Senior
High School 0 1 0 0
3/22/01 Benavides TX High School 0 0 0 0
3/30/01 Gary IN Lew Wallace High School 1 0 0 0
4/3/01 Klein TX Kleb Intermediate School 0 0 1 0
4/20/01 Monroe LA Monroe City Alternative
Center 0 0 0 0
4/25/01 Cleveland OH John Marshall High School 1 0 0 uncertain
5/15/01 Ennis TX Ennis High School 0 0 1 0
6/7/01 Arlington TX Ousley Junior High School 1 0 0 0
10/12/01 Taylorsville UT Taylorsville High School 0 0 1 0
10/26/01 Redondo
Beach CA Redondo Union High School 0 1 0 0
11/12/01 Caro MI Caro Community School’s
Adult Learning Center 0 0 1 0
1/15/02 New York NY Martin Luther King Jr. High
School 0 2 0 0
10/4/02 San Antonio TX Page Middle School 0 0 1 0
10/29/02 Jersey City NJ Lincoln High School 0 1 0 0
11/7/02 Liberty MO St. James Catholic School 1 1 0 0
1/22/03 Providence RI Mount Pleasant High School 0 0 0 0
2/5/03 Westminster CO Ranum High School 0 0 0 0
3/23/03 Meridian MS Lauderdale County School 0 0 1 0
4/1/03 Washington DC Cardozo High School 0 1 0 1
4/10/03 Walnut CA Walnut High School 0 0 1 0
4/14/03 New Orleans LA John McDonogh Senior High
School 1 3 0 0
4/17/03 Addison TX Green Hill School 0 0 1 0
4/24/03 Red Lion PA Red Lion Area Junior High
School 1 0 1 0
5/13/03 Johnstown PA Forest Hills High School 0 0 1 0
6/4/03 Wellsboro PA Rock L. Butler Middle School 0 0 1 0
7/15/03 Dallas TX St. Marks School 0 0 1 0
9/22/03 Spokane WA Lewis and Clark High School 0 0 0 0
9/24/03 Cold Spring MN Rocori High School 2 0 0 0
9/25/03 Lawndale NC Burns Middle School 0 0 0 0
10/1/03 Sacramento CA Rio Cazadero High School 0 2 0 0
10/23/03 Landover MD Matthew Henson Elementary
School 1 0 0 uncertain
11/10/03 Buffalo NY Martin Luther King Elementary
School 1 0 0 uncertain
11/13/03 Charlotte NC East Mecklenburg High School 0 1 0 0
12/8/03 Pueblo CO Centennial High School 0 0 1 0
1/21/04 Henderson NV Galloway Elementary School 1 0 0 0
2/2/04 Washington DC Ballou Senior High School 1 0 0 uncertain
2/9/04 East
Greenbush NY Columbia High School 0 1 0 0
3/17/04 Joyce WA Crescent Elementary and
Crescent Junior-Senior High 0 0 1 0
9/15/04 Gary IN Wirt High School 0 0 0 0
12/10/04 Spokane WA Lakeside High School 0 0 1 0
1/26/05 Peoria IL Woodruff High School 0 0 0 0
3/21/05 Red Lake MN Red Lake High School 7 0 1 0
4/7/05 Canton TX Canton High School 0 1 0 0
5/17/05 Lower Allen
Township PA Highland Elementary School 1 0 1 0
8/25/05 Jacksboro TN Maury Middle School 0 1 0 0
9/13/05 Chicago IL Harlan Community Academy
High School 0 1 0 0
10/11/05 Farmington MO Farmington High School 0 0 0 0
10/20/05 Saginaw MI Saginaw High School 0 1 0 1
10/27/05 Fresno CA Birney Elementary School 1 0 0 1
11/8/05 Jacksboro TN Campbell County
Comprehensive High School 1 2 0 0
12/6/05 Detroit MI Central High School 0 1 0 0
1/13/06 Birmingham AL Pinson Valley High School 1 0 0 0
1/18/06 Chesapeake VA Indian River High School 0 0 0 0
1/23/06 Vacaville CA Will C. Wood High School 0 1 0 0
1/27/06 Garland TX Lakeview Centennial High
School 0 2 0 0
2/23/06 Roseburg OR Roseburg High School 0 1 0 0
3/14/06 Reno NV Pine Middle School 0 2 0 0
6/5/06 Los Angeles CA Venice High School 1 0 0 1
8/3/06 Essex VT Essex Elementary School 1 2 1
(attempt) 0
8/30/06 Hillsborough NC Orange High School 0 2 0 0
9/27/06 Bailey CO Platte Canyon High School 1 6 1 0
9/29/06 Cazenovia WI Weston High School 1 0 0 0
10/2/06 Lancaster
County PA West Nickel Mines School 5 5 1 0
10/9/06 Joplin MO Memorial Middle School 0 0 0 0
12/12/06 Erdenheim PA Springfield Township High
School 0 0 1 0
1/3/07 Tacoma WA Foss High School 1 0 0 0
1/8/07 Cincinnati OH Robert A. Taft Information
Technology High School 0 0 0 0
1/18/07 Philadelphia PA William L.Sayre High School 0 1 0 0
2/8/07 Prineville OR Crook County High School 0 0 1 0
3/7/07 Midland MI Herbert Henry Dow High
School 0 1 1 0
4/9/07 Chicago IL Chicago Vocational Career
Academy 0 1 0 0
5/15/07 Los Fresnos TX Liberty Memorial Middle
School 0 0 0 0
6/6/07 Tampa FL George S. Middleton High
School 0 0 0 0
8/4/07 Newark NJ Mount Vernon Elementary
School 3 1 0 1
9/28/07 Oroville CA Las Plumas High School 0 0 0 0
10/10/07 Cleveland OH Success Tech Academy 0 4 1 0
1/16/08 Charlotte NC Crossroads Charter High
School 0 1 0 0
2/4/08 Memphis TN Hamilton High School 0 1 0 0
2/7/08 Portsmouth OH Notre Dame Elementary
School 0 2 1 (later at
home) 0
2/11/08 Memphis TN Mitchell High School 0 1 0 0
2/12/08 Oxnard CA E.O. Green Junior High School 1 0 0 0
3/6/08 Mobile AL Davidson High School 0 0 1 0
8/21/08 Knoxville TN Central High School 1 0 0 0
10/20/08 Acton CA Vasquez High School 0 0 1 0
10/21/08 Indianapolis IN Ben Davis High School 0 0 1 0
11/12/08 Fort
Lauderdale FL Dillard High School 1 0 0 0
1/23/09 Cahokia IL Cahokia High School 1 0 0 1
2/17/09 Detroit MI Central High School 0 2 0 0
3/6/09 Fayetteville NC Westover High School 0 1 0 uncertain
3/10/09 Jacksonville FL Ribault High School 0 0 0 0
5/5/09 Canandaigua NY Canandauigua Academy 0 0 1 0
5/18/09 Larose LA Larose-Cut Off Middle School 0 0 1 0
6/24/09 Parkersburg IA High School 1 0 0 0
9/16/09 Glen Allen VA Virginia Randolph Community
High School 0 0 0 0
10/30/09 Long Beach CA Wilson High School 1 2 0 1
2/5/10 Madison AL Discovery Middle School 1 0 0 1
2/23/10 Littleton CO Deer Creek Middle School 0 2 0 0
2/26/10 Tacoma WA Birney Elementary School 1 0 0 0
4/28/10 Portsmouth VA Woodrow Wilson High School 0 0 0 uncertain
5/18/10 South Gate CA South Gate High School 0 1 0 0
9/21/10 Conway SC Socastee High School 0 1 0 0
10/1/10 Salinas CA Alisal High School 1 0 0 1
10/8/10 Carlsbad CA Kelly Elementary School 0 2 0 0
11/29/10 Marinette WI Marinette High School 0 0 1 0
1/5/11 Omaha NE Millard South High School 1 2 1 0
1/19/11 Los Angeles CA Gardena High School 0 2 0 uncertain
2/2/11 Placerville CA Louisiana Schnell Elementary
School 1 0 0 0
3/25/11 Martinsville IN Martinsville West Middle
School 0 1 0 0
3/31/11 Houston TX Worthing High School 1 5 0 1
4/19/11 Houston TX Ross Elementary School 0 2 0 0
5/23/11 Pearl City HI Highlands Intermediate School 0 1 0 0
10/24/11 Fayetteville NC Cape Fear High School 0 1 0 0
1/10/12 Houston TX North Forest High School 0 1 0 0
2/10/12 Walpole NH Walpole Elementary 0 0 1
(attempt) 0
2/22/12 Bremerton WA Armin Jahr Elementary 0 1 0 0
2/27/12 Chardon OH Chardon High School 3 3 0 0
3/6/12 Jacksonville FL Episcopal School of
Jacksonville 1 0 1 0
3/15/12 Mobile AL LeFlore High School 0 0 0 0
8/27/12 Perry Hall MD Perry Hall High School 0 1 0 0
9/7/12 Normal IL Normal Community High
School 0 0 0 0
12/14/12 Newtown CT Sandy Hook Elementary School 26 2 1 0
1/10/13 Taft CA Taft Union High School 0 1 0 0
1/31/13 Atlanta GA Price Middle School 0 1 0 0
2/13/13 San Leandro CA Hillside Elementary School 1 0 0 0
2/27/13 Atlanta GA Henry W. Grady High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
3/21/13 Southgate MI Davidson Middle School 0 0 1 0
4/29/13 Cincinnati OH La Salle High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot)
1
(attempt) 0
5/24/13 Homestead FL Redland Middle School 0 1 0 0
6/19/13 West Palm
Beach FL Alexander W. Dreyfoos School
of the Arts 2 0 0 0
8/15/13 Clarksville TN Northwest High School 1 0 0 uncertain
8/20/13 Decatur GA Ronald E. McNair Discovery
Learning Academy 0 0 0 0
8/22/13 Memphis TN Westside Elementary School 0 0 0 0
8/23/13 Sardis MS North Panola High School 1 1 0 1
8/30/13 Winston-
Salem NC Carver High School 0 1 0 0
9/28/13 Gray ME Gray-New Gloucester High
School 0 0 1 0
10/15/13 Austin TX Lanier High School 0 0 1 0
10/21/13 Sparks NV Sparks Middle School 1 2 1 0
10/23/13 Chino CA Newman Elementary School 0 3 0 0
11/1/13 Algona IA Algona High/Middle School 0 0 1 0
11/3/13 Stone
Mountain GA Stephenson High School 0 1 0 uncertain
12/4/13 Winter
Garden FL West Orange High School 0 1 0 0
12/13/13 Centennial CO Arapahoe High School 1 0 1 0
1/14/14 Roswell NM Berrendo Middle School 0 2 0 0
1/15/14 Lancaster PA King Elementary School 0 0 0 uncertain
1/17/14 Philadelphia PA Delaware Valley Charter High
School 0 2 0 0
1/31/14 Phoenix AZ Cesar Chavez High School 0 0 0 1
2/7/14 Bend OR Bend High School 0 0 1 0
2/10/14 Salisbury NC Salisbury High School 0 1 0 uncertain
2/11/14 Lyndhurst OH Charles F. Brush High School 0 0 0 0
4/21/14 Provo UT Provo High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot)
1
(attempt) 0
4/21/14 Griffith IN St. Mary Catholic School 1 0 1 0
5/3/14 Everett WA Horizon Elementary 0 1 0 1
6/10/14 Troutdale OR Reynolds High School 1 1 1 0
6/23/14 Benton MO Kelly High School 1 0 0 0
8/13/14 Fredrick MD Heather Ridge High school 0 0 0 0
8/14/14 Newport
News VA Saunders Elementary 2 1 0 1
9/10/14 Lake Mary FL Greenwood Lakes Middle
School 0 0 1 0
9/11/14 Taylorsville UT Westbrook Elementary School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
9/30/14 Louisville KY Fern Creek High School 0 1 0 0
9/30/14 Albermarle NC Abermarle High school 0 1 0 0
10/3/14 Fairburn GA Langston Hughes High School 1 0 0 uncertain
10/21/14 Memphis TN A. Maceo Walker Middle
School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
10/24/14 Marysville WA Marysville Pilchuck High
School 4 1 1 0
12/17/14 Pittsburgh PA Sunnyside Elementary School 1 0 0 uncertain
12/17/14 Waterville ME Benton Elementary School 0 0 1 0
2015 Purvis MS Purvis High School
1/16/15 Ocala FL Vanguard High School 0 2 0 uncertain
1/23/15 Hardeeville SC Royal Live Oaks Academy 0 0 0 0
1/26/15 Roseville MN Hand and Hand Montessori 0 0 1 0
2/15/15 Little Rock AR Lawson Elementary School 0 2 0 0
2/15/15 Merced CA Tenaya Middle School 1 0 0 0
3/30/15 University
City MO Pershing Elementary School 0 1 0 0
4/17/15 Seguin TX Seguin High School 0 0 1 0
4/22/15 Las Vegas NV Ruthe Deskin Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
4/27/15 Lacey WA North Thurston High School 0 0 0 0
5/5/15 Conyers GA Conyers Middle School 0 0 0 0
5/12/15 Tempe AZ Corona del Sol High School 0 0 1 0
5/20/15 Robinson TX Robinson High School 0 0 1 0
6/4/15 Franklin NC South Macon Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
6/23/15 Fort Calhoun NE Fort Calhoun Elementary
School 0 0 0 uncertain
8/8/15 Paradise TX Paradise High School 0 0 0 0
8/23/15 Richmond TX William Velasquez Elementary 0 0 0 0
8/25/15 Augusta GA Hornsby Elementary School 0 1 0 0
9/11/15 Lafayette LA Northside High School 0 1 0 uncertain
9/22/15 Statesville NC Central Elementary School 0 1 0 0
9/30/15 Harrisburg SD Harrisburg High School 0 1 0 0
10/2/15 University
City MO University City High School 0 0 0 0
10/15/15 San Antonio TX Wagner High School 0 0 0 0
11/5/15 Moultrie GA Vereen School 0 0 0 0
11/10/15 Lecanto FL Lecanto High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot)
1
(attempt) 0
11/11/15 Sulphur Rock AR Sulphur Rock Magnet School 0 1 0 0
1/12/16 Dover DE Central Middle School 0 0 0 0
1/13/16 Camden AR Harmony Grove High School 0 1 0 0
1/22/16 Indianapolis IN Lawrence Central High School 0 1 0 uncertain
1/29/16 Whites Creek TN Whites Creek High School 1 0 0 0
1/29/16 Philadelphia PA Benjamin Franklin High School 0 0 0 0
2/9/16 Muskegon
Heights MI Muskegon Heights High School 0 3 0 1
2/12/16 Glendale AZ Independence High School 1 0 1 0
2/17/16 Homosassa FL Rock Crusher Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
2/26/16 Palestine TX Palestine High School 0 2 0 0
2/29/16 Middletown OH Madison High School 0 2 0 0
5/2/16 Dallas TX Kimball High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
5/4/16 Pueblo CO East High School 0 1 1 0
5/6/16 Twin Falls ID Robert Stuart Middle School 0 0 0 0
5/13/16 Greenville SC Southside High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
5/15/16 Augusta KS Augusta High School 0 2 0 0
7/25/16 Ava MO Ava High School 0 1 1 0
8/1/16 DeKalb GA McNair High School
9/2/16 Tulsa OK McLain High School 0 1 0 1
9/8/16 Alpine TX Alpine High School 0 1 1 0
9/9/16 Cedar Rapids IA Cedar Rapids Jefferson High
School 0 0 1 0
9/28/16 Townville SC Townville Elementary School 1 3 0 0
10/6/16 Fort Worth TX Dunbar High School 0 1 0 1
10/11/16 Prichard AL Vigor High School 0 1 0 0
11/2/16 Grand
Junction CO Grand Junction High School 0 0 1 0
11/3/16 Berthoud CO Berthoud High School 0 0 1 0
11/11/16 Auburn MI Bay City Western High School 0 1 0 0
11/17/16 St. Paul MN Crossroads Elementary School 0 0 0 0
12/1/16 Bountiful UT Mueller Park Junior High
School 0 0 1
(attempt) 0
12/9/16 St. Louis MO Bayless High School 0 1 0 uncertain
1/10/17 Alexander
City AL Alexander City Middle School 0 0 0 0
1/17/17 Eastpoint FL Franklin County Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
1/20/17 West Liberty OH West Liberty-Salem High
School 0 1 0 0
1/27/17 Naperville IL Scullen Middle School 1 0 0 uncertain
2/6/17 Scotlandville LA Scotlandville High School 0 0 0 0
3/24/17 San Diego CA Gompers Preparatory
Academy 1 0 0 uncertain
4/10/17 San
Bernardino CA North Park Elementary School 2 1 1 0
4/15/17 Tulsa OK Booker T. Washington High
School 0 1 0 0
5/15/17 Moss Bluff LA Moss Bluff Elementary School 0 1 0 0
5/23/17 Kirbyville TX Kirbyville High School 0 0 1 0
6/22/17 Florence SC Wilson High School 0 1 0 0
7/19/17 Milwaukee WI Hickman Academy Prepatory
School 0 1 0 0
7/21/17 Spanish Fork UT Spanish Fork High School 0 1 1 0
8/17/17 Lithia Springs GA Lithia Springs High School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot)
1
(attempt) 0
9/8/17 Columbus OH Columbus Scioto 6-12 0 0 0 0
9/13/17 Rockford WA Freeman High School 1 3 0 0
9/20/17 Mattoon IL Mattoon High School 0 1 0 0
9/29/17 Lee’s Summit MO Lee’s Summit North High
School 0 0 1 0
11/9/17 Atlanta GA Benjamin Banneker High
School 0 2 0 0
11/10/17 Milledgeville GA Lakeview Academy 0 0 0 0
11/14/17 Minneola FL Lake Minneola High School 0 0 1 0
11/14/17 Corning CA Rancho Tehama Elementary
School 0 3 1 0
11/17/17 Jackson TN North Side High School 0 0 0 uncertain
11/23/17 Denver CO Manual High School 0 3 0 1
11/28/17 San Jose CA Booksin Elementary School 0 0 0 0
11/29/17 Lima OH Bath High School 0 0 0 0
11/30/17 Virginia
Beach VA Salem High School 0 0 1 0
12/5/17 San Jose CA Mount Pleasant High School 1 0 0 uncertain
12/7/17 Aztec NM Aztec High School 2 0 1 0
12/11/17 High Point NC High Point Central High School 0 0 0 1
12/12/17 Pasadena TX Sam Rayburn High School 0 2 0 0
12/14/17 Dallas TX Elisha M. Pease Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
12/27/17 Lancaster CA Lincoln Elementary School 0 1 0 uncertain
12/31/17 Marysville WA Pinewood Elementary School 0 0 0 0
1/4/18 Seattle WA New Start High School 0 0 0 uncertain
1/10/18 Sierra Vista AZ Coronado Elementary School 0 0 1 0
1/22/18 Italy TX Italy High School 0 1 0 0
1/23/18 Benton KY Marshall County High School 2 18 0 0
1/25/18 Mobile AL Murphy High School 0 0 0 0
1/31/18 Philadelphia PA Lincoln High School 1 0 0 uncertain
2/1/18 Los Angeles CA Salvador B. Castro Middle
School 0 4 0 0
2/5/18 Maplewood MN Harmony Learning Center 0 0 0 0
2/8/18 New York NY The Metropolitan High School 0 0 0 0
2/14/18 Parkland FL Marjory Stoneman Douglas
High School 17 15 0 0
2/20/18 Massillon OH Jackson Memorial Middle
School 0 0 1 0
2/26/18 Tacoma WA Oakland High School 0 0 0 0
2/28/18 Dalton GA Dalton High School 0 0 0 0
3/5/18 Cadet MO Kingston High School 0 0 1 0
3/7/18 Birmingham AL Huffman High School 1 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
3/9/18 Lexington KY Frederick Douglass High
School 0 1 (self-inflicted
gunshot) 0 0
3/13/18 Seaside CA Seaside High School 0 3 0 0
3/13/18 Alexandria VA George Washington Middle
School 0 0 0 0
3/20/18 Great Mills MD Great Mills High School 1 1 1 0
4/12/18 Raytown MO Raytown South Middle School 0 1 0 uncertain
4/20/18 Ocala FL Forest High School 0 1 0 0
5/3/18 Waynesboro TN Waynesboro Elementary
School 0 0 0 0
5/5/18 Fowlerville MI Fowlerville High School 0 0 0 0
5/11/18 Palmdale CA Highland High School 0 1 0 0
5/16/18 Dixon IL Dixon High School 0 1 (shooter
himself) 0 0
5/18/18 Santa Fe TX Santa Fe High School 10 13 0 0
5/21/18 Griffin GA Beaverbrook Elementary
School 0 1 0 0
5/25/18 Noblesville IN Noblesville West Middle
School 0 2 0 0
6/1/18 McKinney TX McKinney North High School 0 0 1 0
6/16/18 Portland OR Grant High School 1 0 0 uncertain
6/22/18 Dallas TX Skyline High School 0 1 0 uncertain
7/17/18 Hurricane WV Hurricane High School 0 0 0 0
8/9/18 Millville NJ Lakeside Middle School 1 0 0 uncertain
8/11/18 Antioch TN Antioch High School 0 1 0 0
8/30/18 San
Francisco CA Balboa High School 0 0 0 0
Appendix 2: Contact list for schools to determine whether school allowed teachers to carry at the time of the shooting
Fit (1-Nongang,
nonsuicide;
2-
Gang-related;
3-Suicide; 4-
Unfit; 5-open
ground such
as in the
parking lot;
9-Unsure)
DATE CITY STATE SCHOOL NAME
Allow
teachers
and staff
to carry
conceale
d
handguns
at school
Source
1 9/24/03 Cold Spring MN Rocori High
School No Mark Jenson
<jensonm@rocori.k12.mn.us>
1 10/21/1
3 Sparks NV Sparks Middle
School No Victoria Campbell
<VCampbell@WashoeSchools.net>
1 10/24/1
4 Marysville WA
Marysville
Pilchuck High
School
No David Rose
<david_rose@msvl.k12.wa.us>
1 4/27/15 Lacey WA North Thurston
High School No Courtney Schrieve
<CSchrieve@nthurston.k12.wa.us>
1 2/29/16 Middletow
n OH Madison High
School No Lisa Tuttle-Huff <Lisa.Tuttle-
Huff@madisonmohawks.org>
1
(accidentally)
11/17/1
6 St. Paul MN
Crossroads
Elementary
School
No Jerry Skelly <jerry.skelly@spps.org>
1 1/20/17 West
Liberty OH
West Liberty-
Salem High
School
No Greg Johnson <gjohnson@wlstigers.org>
1 9/13/17 Rockford WA Freeman High
School No Raelyn Davis <rdavis@freemansd.org>
1 1/22/18 Italy TX Italy High School No Lee Joffre <ljoffre@italyisd.org>
1
(accidentally) 2/5/18 Maplewoo
d MN Harmony
Learning Center No Joshua Anderson
<janderson2@isd622.org>
1 2/20/18 Massillon OH
Jackson
Memorial
Middle School
No Barry Mason: 330-834-4619
1 5/25/18 Noblesville IN Noblesville West
Middle School No Mark Booth
<mark_booth@nobl.k12.in.us>
2 (uncertain) 12/9/16 St. Louis MO Bayless High
School No Patrick McEvoy
<pmcevoy@bayless.k12.mo.us>
2 (uncertain) 11/23/1
7 Denver CO Manual High
School No Douglas Clinkscales
<DOUGLAS_CLINKSCALES@dpsk12.org>
3 4/3/01 Klein TX
Kleb
Intermediate
School
No David Kimberly
<dkimberly@kleinisd.net>
3 5/15/01 Ennis TX Ennis High
School No Jason Gilstrap
<jason.gilstrap@ennis.k12.tx.us>
3 10/15/1
3 Austin TX Lanier High
School No Mikayla Myers
<mikayla.myers@austinisdpolice.org>
3 1/26/15 Roseville MN Hand and Hand
Montessori No Michelle Thompson
<m.thompson@hihcm.org>
3 4/17/15 Seguin TX Seguin High
School No
Sean Hoffmann
<shoffmann@seguin.k12.tx.us>;
Kirsten Legore
<klegore@seguin.k12.tx.us>
3 11/3/16 Berthoud CO Berthoud High
School No Todd Piccone
<todd.piccone@thompsonschools.org>
3 9/29/17 Lee’s
Summit MO
Lee’s Summit
North High
School
No Jeff Meisenheimer
<jeff.meisenheimer@lsr7.net>
3 3/5/18 Cadet MO Kingston High
School No
Alex McCaul
<mccaul.alex@gapps.kingston.k12.mo.us
>
3 6/1/18 McKinney TX McKinney North
High School No Cody Cunningham
<cocunningham@mckinneyisd.net>
4 (wasn’t at a
school) 12/9/07 Arvada CO
YWAM
Missionary
Center and New
Life Church
No YWAM Denver Personnel
<personnel@ywamdenver.org>
5 3/22/01 Benavides TX High School No
Raynaldo Perez
<rperez@benavidesisd.net>;
jgarcia@benavidesisd.net
5 2/23/10 Littleton CO Deer Creek
Middle School No
McDonald John
<John.McDonald2@jeffco.k12.co.us>;
Glass Jason
<Jason.Glass@jeffco.k12.co.us>
5 4/21/14 Griffith IN St. Mary Catholic
School No ST MARY SCHOOL
<st.marys@comcast.net>
5 10/15/1
5
San
Antonio TX Wagner High
School No Teresa Ramon <tramon@judsonisd.org>
5 1/22/16 Indianapoli
s IN
Lawrence
Central High
School
No Jim Parish <jimparish@msdlt.k12.in.us>
5 5/4/16 Pueblo CO East High School No Dalton Sprouse
<dalton.sprouse@pueblocityschools.us>
5 7/25/16 Ava MO Ava High School No Jason Dial <jdial@avabears.net>
5 12/27/1
7 Lancaster CA
Lincoln
Elementary
School
No Jerri Munney <munneyj@lancsd.org>
5 1/4/18 Seattle WA New Start High
School No Tove Tupper
<Tove.Tupper@highlineschools.org>;
Catherine Carbone Rogers
<Catherine.Carbone@highlineschools.org
>
5 6/22/18 Dallas TX Skyline High
School No Craig Miller <CRMILLER@dallasisd.org>
9 (source:
NSSC alone;
suicide)
7/15/03 Dallas TX St. Marks School No David Dini <Dini@smtexas.org>
9 (source:
NSSC alone;
suicide)
12/8/03 Pueblo CO Centennial High
School No Dalton Sprouse
<dalton.sprouse@pueblocityschools.us>
End Notes
1 Lott and Landes (2003, 97-136) and Lott (2010, 103-106, Chapter 10).
2 Steve Bousquet, Emily L. Mahoney and Mary Ellen Klas, “Rick Scott proposes $500 million
school safety program,” Tampa Bay Times, February 23, 2018
(http://www.tampabay.com/florida-politics/buzz/2018/02/23/rick-scott-proposes-450-millionschool-
safety-program/).
* President of the Crime Prevention Research Center.
3 For Lopez, the Army psychiatrist who last saw him found no “sign of likely violence, either to
himself or to others.” In Holmes’ case, while his psychiatrist warned University of Colorado
officials about his violent fantasies, she “rejected the idea” that the threat was sufficiently
serious for him to be taken into custody. Seung-Hui Cho was determined not to be “an
imminent danger to others as a result of mental illness” (Virginia Tech Review Panel, 2007). The
judge stated it was not necessary to have him involuntarily committed.
4 See the data set available for download here (https://crimeresearch.org/data/).
5 John R. Lott, Jr., “The War on Guns,” Regnery Publishing, 2016.
6 PoliceOne.com, “Gun Policy & Law Enforcement: Survey Results,” March 13, 2013
(http://ddq74coujkv1i.cloudfront.net/p1_gunsurveysummary_2013.pdf).
7 There are a large number of other surveys that show how strongly police and chiefs of police
support relatively lax rules for civilians carrying permitted concealed handguns. Surveys include
a 2012 survey by Police Magazine (https://tinyurl.com/ybn6z3sz). For 29 years the National
Association of Chiefs of Police has conducted annual surveys of how police chiefs view gun
regulations. The last couple of surveys ask a different question than the earlier ones. The most
recent couple of surveys ask if their department supports national reciprocity, while the earlier
surveys ask if they believe that it will help them reduce crime. For the last two surveys, over
86% of those surveyed said that their departments supported national reciprocity. The results
were fairly consistent when the same survey question asked, and they all show strong support
for national reciprocity. Their surveys are available here
(http://www.aphf.org/surveyresults.pdf).
8 “Allowing teachers and staff to carry guns in schools doesn’t increase school insurance
premiums, info from six states,” Crime Prevention Research Center, October 27, 2015
(https://crimeresearch.org/2015/10/no-evidence-that-allowing-teachers-and-staff-to-carryguns-
in-schools-increases-insurance-premiums/).
9 Ibid.
10 This is the wording on signs in front of the Okay public schools in Okay, Oklahoma. Similarly
worded signs are in front of other schools around the state.
11 Devin Bodkin, “IDAHO SCHOOLS USE A RANGE OF SAFETY PROTOCOLS, INCLUDING GUNS,”
Idaho News, Feb 22, 2018 (https://www.idahoednews.org/news/idaho-schools-use-rangesafety-
protocols-including-guns/).
12 http://www.schoolsafety.us/media-resources/school-associated-violent-deaths and
https://github.com/washingtonpost/data-school-shootings
13 https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/data.html?src=rt
14 https://everytownresearch.org/gunfire-in-school/2872/#2872
15 https://www.schoolshootingdatabase.com/
16 “States that allow teachers and school staff to carry guns,” Crime Prevention Research
Center, March 9, 2018 (https://crimeresearch.org/2018/03/states-allow-teachers-staff-carryguns/).
Rhode Island changed its rules on teachers carrying after the period that we examined.
17 Garrett Brnger, “172 TX school districts allow staff to carry guns,” KSAT ABC Channel 12, San
Antonio, Texas, February 22, 2018 (https://www.ksat.com/news/172-tx-school-districts-allowstaff-
to-carry-guns).
18 Beatriz Alvarado, “In Texas, these school districts allow teachers, staff to carry guns in
schools,” Corpus Christi Caller Times, June 14, 2018
(https://www.caller.com/story/news/education/texas/2018/06/14/texas-school-districtsallow-
teachers-staff-carry-guns-schools/670653002/)
19 Dan Rieck, “Should teachers carry guns in classrooms,” Columbus Dispatch, September 23,
2018 (https://www.dispatch.com/opinion/20180923/should-teachers-carry-guns-inclassrooms/
1). Adrian Burns, “More Ohio schools arm teachers to shoot attackers,” Telegraph
Forum (Bucyrus, Ohio), November 6, 2016
(https://www.bucyrustelegraphforum.com/story/news/local/2016/11/06/ohio-schools-armteachers-
shoot-attackers/93292606/).
20 Based on a telephone call with Clark Aposhian.
21 Ashton Edwards, “19-year-old shoots teen at Spanish Fork High before taking own life,” Fox
13 (Salt Lake City, UT), July 21, 2017 (https://fox13now.com/2017/07/21/19-year-old-shootsteen-
at-spanish-fork-high-before-taking-own-life/).
22 John R. Lott, Jr., “Concealed Carry Permit Holders Across the United States: 2018,” Social
Science Research Network, August 14, 2018 (http://ssrn.com/abstract=3233904).
23 David Wells and Robert Boyd, “16-year-old boy shot near Union Middle School in Sandy,” Fox
13 Salt Lake City, October 25, 2016 (https://fox13now.com/2016/10/25/police-respond-toshooting-
at-union-middle-school-in-sandy/).
24 “UPDATED: Accidental shootings on K-12 and University property by permit holders,” Crime
Prevention Research Center, March 14, 2018 (https://crimeresearch.org/2018/03/accidentalshootings-
on-k-12-and-university-property-by-permit-holders/).
25 Another case took place in Blount County, Alabama during March 2019, with again only a
very minor injury, but that case didn’t involve the teacher legally carrying the gun.
26 “UPDATED: Compiling Cases where concealed handgun permit holders have stopped mass
public shootings and other mass attacks,” Crime Prevention Research Center, September 20,
2016 (https://crimeresearch.org/2016/09/uber-driver-in-chicago-stops-mass-public-shooting/).
27 “Updated: Comparing conviction rates between police and concealed carry permit holders,”
Crime Prevention Research Center, February 19, 2015
(https://crimeresearch.org/2015/02/comparing-conviction-rates-between-police-andconcealed-
carry-permit-holders/).
28 “Vince Vaughn explains the obvious: how mass killers pick out venues where their victims are
sitting ducks,” Crime Prevention Research Center, June 1, 2015
(https://crimeresearch.org/2015/06/vince-vaughn-explains-the-obvious-how-mass-killers-pickout-
venues-where-their-victims-are-sitting-ducks/).
29 Shawn Levy, “FBI: Dearborn Heights ISIS supporter planned to attack Detroit church,” Click on
Detroit, February 5, 2016 (https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/dearborn-heights-isissupporter-
planned-to-attack-detroit-church). Also see “Vince Vaughn explains the obvious: how
mass killers pick out venues where their victims are sitting ducks,” Crime Prevention Research
Center, June 1, 2015 (https://crimeresearch.org/2015/06/vince-vaughn-explains-the-obvioushow-
mass-killers-pick-out-venues-where-their-victims-are-sitting-ducks/).
30 Ibid.
31 “UPDATED: Comparing Death Rates from Mass Public Shootings and Mass Public Violence in
the US and Europe,” Crime Prevention Research Center, June 23, 2015
(https://crimeresearch.org/2015/06/comparing-death-rates-from-mass-public-shootings-inthe-
us-and-europe/).