August 3

435 – Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople is deposed and exiled for heresy by Emperor Theodosius II

1492 – Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain.

1795 – The Treaty of Greenville is signed by the Wyandots, etc.,  ending the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country.

1829 – The Treaty of Lewistown is signed by the Shawnee and Seneca peoples, exchanging land in Ohio for land west of the Mississippi River.

1900 – The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is founded.

1907 – Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis fines Standard Oil of Indiana a record $29.4 million for illegal rebating to freight carriers; the conviction and fine are later reversed on appeal.

1914 – Germany declares war against France.

1921 – Major League Baseball Commissioner, retired Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis confirms the ban of the eight Chicago Black Sox, the day after they were acquitted by a Chicago court.

1936 – Jesse Owens wins the 100 meter dash at the Berlin Olympics.

1958 – The nuclear powerd submarine, USS Nautilus, becomes the first vessel to complete a submerged transit of the geographical North Pole.

1960 – Niger gains independence from France.

1972 – The United States Senate ratifies the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

2004 – The pedestal of the Statue of Liberty reopens after being closed since the September 11 attacks.

2019 – At a WalMart store in El Paso, Texas, 23 people are killed and 23 wounded in a shooting.

Birthdays*
1692 – John Henley
1803 – Joseph Paxton
1900 – Ernie Pyle, John T. Scopes
1901 – John C. Stennis
1904 – Dolores del Río, Clifford D. Simak
1922 – John Eisenhower
1924 – Leon Uris
1926 – Tony Bennett
1928 – Cécile Aubry
1940 – Martin Sheen
1941 – Martha Stewart
1950 – John Landis
1951 – Jay North

Deaths†
1966 – Lenny Bruce
1983 – Carolyn Jones
1995 – Ida Lupino
2008 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

August 2

338BC – The army led by Philip II of Macedon defeats the numerically superior combined forces of Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea

216BC – The army led by Hannibal of Carthage defeats the numerically superior Roman army at Cannae

1610 – While on expedition to discover a northwest passage to the Pacific, Henry Hudson discovers a large bay.

1776 – The final ‘engrossed’ copy of the Declaration of Independence is completed and signed.

1790 – The first United States Census is conducted

1802 – Naapoleon Bonaparte is elected First Consul for Life.

1870 – The world’s first underground tube railway opens in London

1873 – The Clay Street Hill Railroad begins operating the first cable car in San Francisco

1914 – The German army invades and occupies Luxembourg

1923 – Vice President Coolidge becomes President upon the death of President Harding.

1932 – The positron is discovered by Carl D. Anderson.

1934 – Adolf Hitler becomes Führer of Germany following the death of President von Hindenburg.

1939 – Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard write a letter to President Roosevelt, urging him to develop a nuclear weapon.

1943 – Jewish prisoners stage a revolt at Treblinka. The Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 is rammed and sunk by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri

1990 – Iraq invades Kuwait

Birthdays*
1754 – Pierre Charles L’Enfant
1820 – John Tyndall
1834 – Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi
1835 – Elisha Gray
1892 – Jack L. Warner
1905 – Myrna Loy
1915 – Gary Merrill
1919 – Nehemiah Persoff
1923 – Shimon Peres
1924 – Carroll O’Connor
1932 – Lamar Hunt, Peter O’Toole
1939 – Wes Craven
1943 – Jon Robert Cavaiani
1945 – Joanna Cassidy
1948 – Dennis Prager
1959 – Apollonia Kotero
1960 – Linda Fratianne
1976 – Sam Worthington
1977 – Edward Furlong

Deaths†
216BC– Gnaeus Servilius Geminus, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, Marcus Minucius Rufus
257 – Pope Stephen I
640 – Pope Severinus
686 – Pope John V
1075 – John VIII Patriarch of Constantinople
1100 – William II of England
1589 – Henry III of France
1788 – Thomas Gainsborough
1876 – James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickok
1921 – Enrico Caruso
1922 – Alexander Graham Bell
1923 – Warren G. Harding
1934 – Paul von Hindenburg
1976 – László Kalmár, Fritz Lang
1996 – Mohamed Farrah Aidid
1998 – Shari Lewis

August 1

30BC – Octavian and his army enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic.

527 – Justinian I becomes the sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.

1498 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to visit what is now Venezuela.

1571 – The moslem Ottomans finish their conquest of Cyprus

1774 – British scientist Joseph Priestley discovers oxygen gas, corroborating the prior discovery German-Swedish chemist Carl Scheele.

1801 – The American schooner USS Enterprise captures the Tripolitan Polacca in a single-ship action off the shores of Tripoli.

1876 – Colorado is admitted as the 38th U.S. state.

1893 – Henry Perky patents shredded wheat.

1911 – Harriet Quimby takes her pilot’s test and becomes the first U.S. woman to earn an Aero Club of America aviator’s certificate.

1914 – The German Empire declares war on the Russian Empire

1936 – The Olympics open in Berlin with a ceremony presided over by Adolf Hitler.

1944 –  Jews in the Warsaw ghetto rise up against the Nazi German occupation

1950 – Guam is organized as a United States commonwealth as the President Truman signs the Guam Organic Act.

1957 – The United States and Canada form the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).

1965 – Frank Herbert’s novel, Dune is published

1966 – After murdering his mother and wife, Charles Whitman ascends the University of Texas Clock Tower at Austin, killing more people on the way up and continues shooting people at random

1981 – MTV begins broadcasting in the United States

1993 – The Great Mississippi and Missouri Rivers Flood of 1993 comes to a peak.

Birthdays*
10BC – Tiberius Claudius Drusus
1545 – Andrew Melville
1770 – William Clark
1779 – Francis Scott Key
1809 – William B. Travis
1819 – Herman Melville
1843 – Robert Todd Lincoln
1922 – Arthur Hill
1930 – Geoffrey Holder
1933 – Dom DeLuise
1936 – Yves Saint Laurent
1979 – Jason Momoa

Deaths†
30BC – Marcus Antonius
527    – Justin I of Byzantium
1464 – Cosimo de’ Medici
1866 – Chief John Guwisguwi Ross
1903 – Calamity Jane
1944 – Manuel L. Quezon
1966 – Charles Whitman
File:UT Tower Shooting Memorial Austin.jpg
1977 – Francis Gary Powers
1980 – Strother Martin
1981 – Paddy Chayefsky
2009 – Corazon Aquino

July 31

30BC – Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian’s forces outside of Alexandria, but most of his army subsequently deserts

1492 – The Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.

1498 – On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Trinidad.

1715 – Seven days after a Spanish treasure fleet of 12 ships left Havana, Cuba for Spain, 11 of them sink in a storm off the coast of Florida.

1777 – The Second Continental Congress commissions Gilbert du Motier Marquis de Lafayette as a Major General of the United States Army.

1790 – The first U.S. patent is issued, to inventor Samuel Hopkins for a potash process.

1917 – The Battle of Passchendaele begins near Ypres in West Flanders, Belgium.

1932 – The NSDAP wins more than 38% of the vote in German elections.

1941 – Under instructions from Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, orders Reinhard Heydrich to “submit to me as soon as possible a general plan of the administrative material and financial measures necessary for carrying out the desired Final Solution of the Jewish question.”

1964 – Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the moon,

1970 – Black Tot Day: The official rum ration in the British Royal Navy ends

1971 – Apollo 15 astronauts Scott and Irwin become the first to ride in a lunar rover

1991 – The United States and Soviet Union both sign the START I Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

2015 – An exploration by Brent Brisben of Queens Jewels, LLC discovers $4.5 million in sunken gold coins off the coast of Florida.

Birthdays *
1816 – George Henry Thomas
1826 – William S. Clark
1837 – William Quantrill
1886 – Salvatore Maranzano
1892 – Herbert W. Armstrong
1911 – George Liberace
1912 – Milton Friedman
1919 – Curt Gowdy
1924 – Jimmy Evert
1929 – Don Murray
1932 – Ted Cassidy
1939 – France Nuyen
1944 – Geraldine Chaplin
1962 – Wesley Snipes

Deaths †
450 –   Peter Chrysologus
1556 – Ignatius of Loyola
1875 – Andrew Johnson
1917 – PVT Hedd Wyn, LCPL Francis Ledwidge
1964 – Jim Reeves
1980 – Ernst Pascual Jordan
1987 – Joseph E. Levine
2012 – Gore Vidal
2013 – Michael Ansara
2015 – Roddy Piper

July 30

1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.

1619 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the Virginia General Assembly convenes for the first time.

1729 – Baltimore Maryland is founded

1864 – Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.

1945 – The Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis, killing 883 seamen.

1956 – A joint resolution of  Congress is signed by President Eisenhower, authorizing In God We Trust as the U.S. national motto.

1962 – The Trans-Canada Highway is officially opened.

1965 – President Johnson signs the Social Security Act of 1965 into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

1971 – Astronauts David Scott and James Irwin aboard the Apollo Lunar Module Falcon land on the Moon with the first Lunar Rover.

1974 – President Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.

1975 – Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

Birthdays
1818 – Emily Brontë
1863 – Henry Ford
1881 – Smedley Butler
1890 – Casey Stengel
1929 – Sid Krofft
1939 – Peter Bogdanovich
1941 – Paul Anka
1947 – Arnold Schwarzenegger
1948 – Jean Reno
1956 – Delta Burke
1961 – Laurence Fishburne
1969 – Simon Baker

Deaths
579 – Pope Benedict I
1718 – William Penn
1875 – George Pickett
1898 – Otto von Bismarck
1912 – Emperor Meiji Mutsuhito
1918 – SGT Joyce Kilmer
1975 – James Blish
1996 – Claudette Colbert
1998 – Buffalo Bob Smith
2007 – Michelangelo Antonioni, Ingmar Bergman
2015 – Lynn Anderson
2016 – Gloria DeHaven
2018 – Michael A. Sheehan

July 29

587 BC – The Babylonian Empire completes the plunder of Jerusalem, razing it to the ground.

238 – The Praetorian Guard storm the imperial palace in Rome and captures Co-Emperors Marcus Clodius Pupienus and Decimus Caelius Balbinus. On the same day, Marcus Antonius Gordianus, age 13, is proclaimed emperor in The Year of Six Emperors.

904 – moslem Saracen raiders under Rashīq al-Wardāmī sack Thessaloniki

1148 – The Siege of Damascus ends in a crusader defeat and leads to the disintegration of the Second Crusade.

1567 – The 1 year old infant James VI – Later James I of England- is crowned King of Scotland

1588 –English naval forces under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeat the Spanish Armada off the coast of France.

1775 – General George Washington appoints William Tudor as Judge Advocate of the Continental Army, founding of the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s Corps

1818 – French physicist Augustin Fresnel submits his “Memoir on the Diffraction of Light”, providing the final refute to objections to the wave theory of light.

1858 – United States and Japan sign the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, opening the port cities of Shimoda, Hakodate, Kanagawa and Nagasaki to  foreign trade when ratified.

1890 – Vincent Van Gogh finally succumbs to his self inflicted gunshot wound.

1899 – The First Hague Convention is signed.

1907 – Sir Robert Baden-Powell sets up the Brownsea Island Scout camp in England. This is regarded as the foundation of the Scouting movement.

1914– Transcontinental telephone service in the U.S. becomes operational with the first test conversation between New York and San Francisco.

1921 – Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the NSDAP Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – National Socialist German Workers Party – ‘NAZIs’.

1958 – President Eisenhower signs the National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration -NASA.

1965 – The first 4,000 101st Airborne Division troops arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.

1967 – Off the coast of North Vietnam an accidental rocket launch on the deck of the supercarrier USS Forrestal causes a fire, killing 134.

1975 – Gerald R. Ford becomes the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz.

1976 – David Berkowitz -a.k.a. the “Son of Sam” – kills one person and seriously wounds another in the first of his attacks in New York City.

2019– In one of the largest ever data breaches of a big bank, Capital One Financial Corp., the fifth-largest U.S. credit card issuer, announces that a hacker accessed the personal information of approximately 106 million card customers and applicants.

Birthdays
869 –  Hujjat Allah ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi
1805 – Alexis de Tocqueville
1846 – Doña Isabel A Redentora, of Brazil
1876 – Maria Ouspenskaya
1883 – Benito Mussolini
1892 – William Powell
1905 – Clara Bow, Dag Hammarskjöld
1906 – Thelma Todd
1907 – Melvin Belli
1914 – Professor Irwin Corey
1921 – Richard Egan
1933 – Robert Fuller
1941 – David Warner
1972 – Wil Wheaton
1973 – Stephen Dorff

Deaths
238 –   Imperatores Balbinus et Pupienus
1099 – Pope Urban II
1644 – Pope Urban VIII
1890 – Vincent van Gogh
1974 – Cass Elliot
1976 – Donna Lauria
1982 – Vladimir K. Zworykin
1983 – David Niven

July 28

1540 – Thomas Cromwell is condemned to death without trial on order of Henry VIII, and loses his head over it.

1794 – Maximilien Robespierre is condemned to death by the Revolutionary Tribunal, and loses his head over it.

1854 – The USS Constellation, the last all-sail warship built by the United States Navy is commissioned

1868 – The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is certified

1896 – The city of Miami, Florida is incorporated.

1915 – The United States begins a 19-year occupation of Haiti.

1932 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the United States Army to forcibly evict the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.

1935 – First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

1945 – A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.

1965 – President Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

2002 – 9 coal miners trapped in the flooded Quecreek Mine in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, are rescued after 77 hours underground.

Birthdays
1746 – Thomas Heyward, Jr.
1901 – Rudy Vallée
1907 – Earl Tupper
1920 – Andrew V. McLaglen
1922 – Jacques Piccard
1929 – Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
1943 – Bill Bradley
1945 – Jim Davis
1947 – Sally Struthers
1949 – Vida Blue, Randall Wallace
1954 – Hugo Chávez

Deaths
1540 – Thomas Cromwell
1655 – Cyrano de Bergerac
1794 – Maximilien Robespierre

July 27

1663 – The English Parliament passes the second Navigation Act requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies have to be sent in English ships from English ports.

1775 – The Second Continental Congress passes legislation establishing “an hospital for an army consisting of 20,000 men.”, founding the U.S. Army Medical Department.

1778 – During the Revolutionary War, the British and American ally French fleets fight to a standoff west of the isle of Ushant, at the mouth of the English Channel.

1789 – President Washington signs the legislation establishing The  Department of Foreign Affairs, later to be renamed The Department of State.

1794–French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre is placed under arrest to await trial by the Revolutionary Tribunal the next day.

1816 – During the Seminole Wars, US Navy Gunboat No. 154 ends the siege of Negro Fort when its cannon fire explodes the fort’s powder magazine

1890 – Vincent van Gogh attempts suicide by shooting himself.

1921 – At the University of Toronto, biochemist Frederick Banting proves that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar.

1929 – The Geneva Convention of 1929, dealing with treatment of prisoners-of-war, is signed by 53 nations.

1940 – The animated short A Wild Hare is released, introducing the character of Bugs Bunny.

1949 – The de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner flies for the first time.

1953 – A cessation of hostilities is achieved in the Korean War when the United States, China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement.

1964 – 5,000 American military advisers are sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.

1974 – The House Judiciary Committee votes 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment against President Richard Nixon.

1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C..

1996 – In Atlanta, United States, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Birthdays
1452 – Lucrezia La belle ferronnière Crivelli
1733 – Jeremiah Dixon
1848 – Friedrich Ernst Dorn
1870 – Hilaire Belloc
1882 – Geoffrey de Havilland
1913 – George L. Street III
1916 – Keenan Wynn
1922 – Adolfo Celi, Norman Lear
1931 – Jerry Van Dyke
1957 – Bill Engvall

Deaths
1510 – Giovanni Sforza
1844 – John Dalton
1876 – Albertus van Raalte
1946 – Gertrude Stein
1958 – Claire Lee Chennault
1962 – James H. Kindelberger
1981 – William Wyler
1984 – James Mason
1988 – Frank Zamboni
1995 – Miklós Rózsa
2003 – Bob Hope
2012 – R. G. Armstrong
2013 – Lindy Boggs
2017 – Sam Shepard

July 26

920 – The armies of the alliance of Navarre and Léon lose in battle against the moslem army of the Emir of Córdoba at Valdejunquera.

1139 – One day after defeating the moslem army of Ali ibn Yusuf, Prince Afonso Henriques is proclaimed Afonso o Conquistador, King of Portugal.

1775 – Benjamin Franklin takes office as Postmaster General as the United States Post Office is established by the Second Continental Congress.

1788 – New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States.

1861 – Gen George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

1863 – At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry under the command of Gen John Hunt Morgan are captured by Union forces.

1908 – Attorney General Charles Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner, later to be renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

1941 – In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, the United States, Britain and the Netherlands freeze all Japanese assets and cut off oil shipments.

1945 – The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany. The USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with components and enriched uranium for the Little Boy nuclear bomb.

1947 – President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.

1948 – President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, desegregating the military of the United States.

1953 – Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, starting the Cuban Revolution.

1963 – Syncom 2 is launched from Cape Canaveral to become the world’s first geosynchronous satellite.

1971 – Apollo 15 launches with the first Lunar Roving Vehicle.

1990 – The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President Bush.

2005 – Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-114 as the first flight after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.

Birthdays
1856 – George Bernard Shaw
1875 – Carl Jung
1894 – Aldous Huxley
1895 – Gracie Allen Burns
1903 – Estes Kefauver
1909 – Vivian Vance
1922 – Blake Edwards, Jason Robards
1923 – Jan Berenstain
1928 – Stanley Kubrick
1943 – Peter Hyams, Mick Jagger
1945 – Helen Mirren
1956 – Dorothy Hamill
1957 – Nana Visitor
1959 – Kevin Spacey
1964 – Sandra Bullock
1967 – Jason Statham
1973 – Kate Beckinsale

Deaths
1533 – Atahualpa Sapa Inca
1863 – Sam Houston
1925 – William Jennings Bryan
1926 – Robert Todd Lincoln
1952 – Eva Perón

July 25

306 – Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.

315 – The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum in Rome to commemorate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge.

1139 – The Almoravid moslems led by Ali ibn Yusuf, are defeated by Prince Afonso Henriques, at Ourique in Alentejo Portugal

1603 – King James VI of Scotland is crowned King James 1 of England

1783 – The Revolutionary War’s last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by a preliminary peace agreement.

1861 – Congress passes the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

1866 – Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army. Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.

1868 – The Wyoming Territory is established.

1898 – In the Puerto Rican Campaign of the Spanish American War, the United States seizes Puerto Rico from Spain.

1909 – Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier-than-air machine

1961 – President Kennedy states that any attack on Berlin will be considered an attack on NATO.

1993 – The Saint James Church massacre occurs in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa. One member, Charl van Wyk returns fire, immediately stopping the terrorists and driving them off.

1994 – Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, formally ending the state of war between the two nations.

Birthdays
1109 – Afonso I of Portugal
1750 – Henry Knox
1848 – Arthur Balfour
1894 – Walter Brennan
1914 – Woody Strode
1924 – Frank Church

Deaths
306 – IMP Constantius Chlorus
1190 – Sibylla of Jerusalem
1853 – Joaquin Murrieta
1986 – Vincente Minnelli
1995 – Charlie Rich
1997 – Ben Hogan

July 24

1148 – An army under Louis VII of France lays siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade.

1567 – Mary, Queen of Scots, is forced to abdicate and is replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI.

1847 – Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into the Salt Lake Valley.

1864 – Confederate troops led by General Jubal Early defeat Union troops led by General George Crook, in the 2nd Battle of Kernstown Virginia

1866 – Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union under Reconstruction

1911 – Hiram Bingham III discovers Machu Picchu

1922 – The British Mandate of Palestine is formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations

1929 – The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (really effective wasn’t it?)

1969 – Apollo 11 and crew returns to Earth, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.

1974 – The Supreme Court rules that President Nixon does not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and orders them surrendered to the Watergate special prosecutor.

1998 – Russell Eugene Weston Jr. opens fire in the United States Capitol killing two police officers.

Birthdays
1783 – Simón Bolívar
1802 – Alexandre Dumas
1821 – William Poole
1889 – Agnes Meyer Driscoll
1897 – Amelia Earhart
1899 – Chief Dan George
1900 – Zelda Fitzgerald
1909 – John William Finn
1919 – Kenneth S. Kleinknecht
1920 – Bella Abzug
1936 – Ruth Buzzi, Mark Goddard
1940 – Dan Hedaya
1942 – Chris Sarandon
1946 – Leo Gallagher
1951 – Lynda Carter
1953 – Claire McCaskill
1964 – Barry Bonds
1969 – Jennifer Lopez
1981 – Summer Glau

Deaths
1862 – Martin Van Buren
1980 – Peter Sellers
1991 – Isaac Bashevis Singer
1997 – Hon. William J. Brennan Jr.
2012 – Chad Everett, Sherman Hemsley
2014 – Jerry Ahern

July 23

1319 – A Knights Hospitaller fleet scores a victory over a moslem Aydinid emirate fleet off the Greek island of Chios

1903 – The Ford Motor Company sells its first car.

1914 – Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, demanding they allow Austrians investigate the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand..or else.

1952 – General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement, formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt.

1962 – Jackie Robinson becomes the first African American to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

1968 – The only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft takes place when  three members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine take over the plane en route from Rome, to Lod, Israel.

1995 – Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

Birthdays
1892 – Haile Selassie
1894 – Arthur Treacher
1901 – Hank Worden
1912 – Michael Wilding
1918 – Pee Wee Reese
1933 – Bert Convy
1936 – Don Drysdale
1938 – Ronny Cox
1940 – Don Imus
1961 – Michael Durant
1961 – Woody Harrelson
1968 – Stephanie Seymour

Deaths
1875 – Isaac Singer
1885 – Ulysses S. Grant
1930 – Glenn Curtiss
1948 – D. W. Griffith
1955 – Cordell Hull
1966 – Montgomery Clift
1971 – Van Heflin
1982 – Vic Morrow
2002 – Leo McKern, Chaim Potok
2010 – Daniel Schorr
2012 – Sally Ride

July 22

1099 – Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulcher of The Kingdom of Jerusalem during the First Crusade

1456 – John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire during the moslem siege of Belgrade.

1587 – A second group of English settlers arrives on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.

1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.

1864 – Outside Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.

1933 – Aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City, completing the first solo flight around the world.

1934 – Gangster John Dillinger is spotted entering the Biograph Theater in Chicago.

1937 – The  Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.

1943 – Allied forces capture Palermo during the Allied invasion of Sicily.

1946 – The Irgun bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of British civil and military administration for Mandatory Palestine.

1992 – Fearing extradition to the U.S.,  Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his prison near Medellín.

2003 – Members of 101st Airborne, aided by Special Operation Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay

Birthdays
1898 – Stephen Vincent Benét
1923 – Robert J. Dole
1928 – Orson Bean
1932 – Oscar de la Renta
1934 – Louise Fletcher
1940 – Alex Trebek
1943 – Kay Bailey Hutchison
1946 – Danny Glover
1947 – Don Henley
1955 – Willem Dafoe
1992 – Selena Gomez

Deaths
1864 – MG James B. McPherson
1932 – Flo Ziegfeld
1934 – John Dillinger
1967 – Carl Sandburg
1969 – Judy Garland
2013 – Dennis Farina

July 21

356 BC – The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is destroyed by arson.

1861 – First Battle of Bull Run: At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins and ends in a victory for the Confederate army.

1865 – In the town square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok and Davis Tutt engage in what is regarded as the first western showdown shootout

1873 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James–Younger Gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the U.S.

1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.

1944 – American troops land on Guam, starting a battle that will end on August 10. In Berlin, five conspirators are executed for the plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

1949 – The United States Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty.

1954 – The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

1961 – Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission astronaut Gus Grissom, piloting Liberty Bell 7 becomes the second American to go into space

1969 – At 02:56 UTC, astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first person to walk on the Moon.

1979 – Jay Silverheels becomes the first Native American to have a star commemorated in the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1983 – The world’s lowest temperature in an inhabited location is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).

2011 – NASA’s Space Shuttle program ends with the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-135.

Birthdays
1620 – Jean Picard
1816 – Paul Reuter
1863 – C. Aubrey Smith
1899 – Ernest Hemingway
1920 – Isaac Stern
1924 – Don Knotts
1926 – Paul Burke
1938 – Janet Reno
1939 – John Negroponte
1944 – Paul Wellstone
1946 – Ken Starr
1948 – Cat Stevens, Garry Trudeau
1949 – Christina Hart
1951 – Robin Williams
1952 – John Barrasso

Deaths
1796 – Robert Burns
1865 – Davis Tutt
1878 – Sam Bass
1938 – Owen Wister
1944 – Obst Claus von Stauffenberg, Lt Werner von Haeften, Gen Friedrich Olbricht, Obst Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim
1967 – Basil Rathbone
1982 – Dave Garroway
1998 – Alan Shepard, Robert Young
2004 – Jerry Goldsmith
2015 – E. L. Doctorow
2017 – John Heard
2018 – Alene Duerk

July 20

AD 70 – Titus’ Roman army storms the Fortress Antonia north of the Temple Mount.

1189 – Richard the Lionheart of England is officially invested as Duke of Normandy.

1810 – Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia) declare independence from Spain.

1831 – The Seneca and Shawnee tribes agree to cede land in western Ohio for 60,000 acres west of the Mississippi River.

1864 – Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman at Peach Tree Hill near Atlanta

1903 – The Ford Motor Company ships its first automobile.

1944 – Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.

1960 – The Polaris SLBM is successfully launched from the USS George Washington

1969 – Apollo 11’s Lunar Module crewed by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin makes the first manned landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility.

1976 – Viking 1 successfully lands on Mars.

1997 – The Navy celebrates the 200th birthday of the fully restored USS Constitution by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.

2012 – James Holmes, later sentenced to 12 consecutive life terms plus 3318 years without parole, opens opens fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, killing 12 and injuring 70 others.

2013 – Seventeen government soldiers are killed in an attack by FARC revolutionaries in the Colombian department of Arauca.

Birthdays
356BC – Alexander the Great
1591 – Anne Hutchinson
1919 – Edmund Hillary
1920 – Elliot Richardson
1938 – Diana Rigg, Natalie Wood
1945 – Kim Carnes, Larry Craig
1947 – Carlos Santana
1964 – Chris Cornell
1980 – Gisele Bündchen

Deaths
1704 – Peregrine White
1923 – Pancho Villa
1926 – Felix Dzerzhinsky
1973 – Bruce Lee
1983 – Frank Reynolds
1987 – Richard Egan
1993 – Vince Foster
2005 – James Doohan
2013 – Helen Thomas

July 19

64 – The Great Fire of Rome rages on for six days, destroying half of the city

711 – Umayyad moslem forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic at Guadalete

939 – King Ramiro II of León defeats a moslem army under Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III near Simancas

1701 – The Iroquois Confederacy cedes territory north of the Ohio River to England.

1845 – The Great New York City Fire destroys 345 buildings and results in the death of 4 firefighters and 26 citizens

1870 – France declares war on Prussia.

1963 – Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to an altitude of 347,800 feet exceeding an altitude of 100 km, qualifying as spaceflight

1977 – The world’s first Global Positioning System is transmitted from an orbiting satellite.

1979 – The Sandinista rebels overthrow the Somoza government of Nicaragua.

Birthdays
1814 – Samuel Colt
1860 – Lizzie Borden
1865 – Charles Horace Mayo
1922 – George McGovern
1924 – Pat Hingle
1929 – Gaston Glock
1937 – George Hamilton IV
1938 – Richard Jordan
1941 – Vikki Carr
1962 – Anthony Edwards
1976 – Benedict Cumberbatch

Deaths
1965 – Syngman Rhee
2014 – James Garner
2019 – Rutger Hauer

July 18

452 – After an earlier defeat on the Catalaunian Plains, Attila The Hun lays siege to the metropolis of Aquileia and eventually destroys it.

1195 – Almohad moslem forces defeat the Castilian army of Alfonso VIII at Alarcos and force its retreat to Toledo.

1863 – The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry attempts an unsuccessful assault on Confederate held Battery Wagner, south of Charleston harbor.

1914 – The U.S. Congress forms the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, U.S. Army

1925 – Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf

1942 – The Germans test fly the jet Messerschmitt Me 262  under power for the first time.

1966 – Gemini 10 is launched from Cape Kennedy

1968 – Intel is founded in Mountain View, California

1976 – Nadia Comăneci becomes the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

2013 – The Government of the City of Detroit files for municipal bankruptcy

Birthdays
1504 – Heinrich Bullinger
1843 – Virgil Earp
1853 – Hendrik Lorentz
1886 – Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr.
1887 – Vidkun Quisling
1895 – George Machine Gun Kelly Barnes
1902 – Chill Wills
1909 – Harriet Nelson
1911 – Hume Cronyn
1913 – Red Skelton
1937 – Hunter S. Thompson
1938 – Paul Verhoeven
1940 – James Brolin, Joe Torre
1947 – Steve Forbes
1950 – Richard Branson
1954 – Ricky Skaggs
1961 – Elizabeth McGovern
1967 – Vin Diesel

Deaths
1194 – Guy d’ Lusignan
1698 – Johann Heinrich Heidegger
1792 – John Paul Jones
1817 – Jane Austen
1863 – COL Robert Gould Shaw
1872 – Benito Juárez
1899 – Horatio Alger
1916 – Benjamin C. Truman
1954 – George Machine Gun Kelly Barnes. Yep, that’s right
1969 – Mary Jo Kopechne. Too bad about her driver.
2005 – William Westmoreland
2018 – Adrian Cronauer

July 17

180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium (near Kasserine, modern-day Tunisia) in North Africa are executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.

1203 – The Army of the Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople

1429 – Charles VII is crowned the King of France in the Reims Cathedral after a successful campaign by Joan of Arc.

1794 – The Martyrs of Compiègne are executed ten days prior to the end of the French Revolution’s Reign of Terror.

1821 – The Kingdom of Spain cedes the territory of Florida to the U.S.

1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine is established in Boston, Massachusetts.

1918 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his immediate family and retainers are murdered by Bolsheviks

1936 – An Armed Forces rebellion against the recently elected leftist Popular Front government of Spain starts the Spanish Civil War

1938 – Douglas Corrigan takes off from Brooklyn to fly the “wrong way” to Ireland and becomes known as “Wrong Way” Corrigan.

1944 –  Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is seriously injured by allied aircraft while returning to his headquarters in Normandy

1945 – The main three leaders of the Allied nations, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam

1955 – Disneyland is opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California.

1975 – An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1996 – TWA Flight 800 crashes 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport

2014 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 is shot down while flying over eastern Ukraine.

Birthdays
1674 – Isaac Watts
1744 – Elbridge ‘gerrymander’ Gerry
1763 – John Jacob Astor
1774 – John Wilbur
1889 – Erle Stanley Gardner
1899 – James Cagney
1912 – Art Linkletter
1917 – Phyllis Diller
1918 – Red Sovine
1935 – Diahann Carroll, Donald Sutherland
1947 – Camilla Bowles Windsor
1951 – Lucie Arnaz, Mark Bowden
1952 – David Hasselhoff
1954 – Angela Merkel

Deaths
1794 – Madeleine-Claudine Ledoine, Marie-Anne Brideau, Marie-Françoise Gabrielle de Croissy, Marie-Anne Piedcourt, Anne-Marie-Madeleine Thouret, Marie-Claude Cyprienne, Marie-Antoniette Hanisset, Rose-Chrétien de la Neuville, Marie-Gabrielle Trézel, Anne Petras, Marie-Geneviève Meueier, Marie Dufourm, Angélique Roussel, Julie Vérolot, Catherine Soiron, Thérèse Soiron
1881 – Jim Bridger
1918 – Anastasia Nikolaevna, Maria Nikolaevna, Olga Nikolaevna, Tatiana Nikolaevna, Alexandra Fyodorovna, Aleksei Nikolaevich, Nikolai II, Anna Demidova, Ivan Kharitonov, Alexei Trupp, Yevgeny Botkin
1928 – Álvaro Obregón
1959 – Billie Holiday
1961 – Ty Cobb
2006 – Mickey Spillane
2009 – Walter Cronkite

July 16

1054 – Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing a Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during divine liturgy. This is generally considered as the start of the East–West (Roman Catholic- Orthodox Catholic) Schism.

1661 – The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.

1769 – FR Junípero Serra founds California’s first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá.

1779 – The Continental Army seizes a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point.
What Is The Spirit Of The Bayonet! To KILL!!

1790 – The Residence Act establishes the District of Columbia as the capital

1809 – The city of La Paz declares its independence from the Spanish Crown

1861 – Union troops begin a march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run.

1862 – David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank.

1931 – Emperor Haile Selassie signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.

1941 – Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game

1945 – The U.S. Army’s G Division successfully detonates the ‘Gadget’, a plutonium nuclear device, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. – The cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco, bound for Tinian Island, with parts for the uranium nuclear weapon ‘Little Boy’.

1948 – The city of Nazareth, capitulates to Israeli troops during the Arab–Israeli War.

1950 – During the battle of Taejon, American POWs are murdered by the North Korean Army.

1969 – Apollo 11 is launched from the Kennedy Space Center

1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, die when the aircraft he was piloting crashes off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard.

2015 – Four U.S. Marines die in an attack by a moslem terrorist targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Birthdays
1194 – Clare of Assisi
1821 – Mary Baker Eddy
1862 – Ida B. Wells
1872 – Roald Amundsen
1902 – Mary Philbin
1907 – Orville Redenbacher, Miss Barbara Stanwyck
1910 – Gordon Prange
1911 – Ginger Rogers, Sonny Tufts
1924 – Bess Myerson
1952 – Stewart Copeland
1957 – Faye Grant
1963 – Phoebe Cates
1967 – Will Ferrell
1971 – Corey Feldman
1979 – Kim Rhode

Deaths
1546 – Anne Askew
1576 – Isabella de’ Medici
1882 – Mary Todd Lincoln
1886 – Ned Buntline
1915 – Ellen G. White
1960 – Albert Kesselring
1981 – Harry Chapin
1991 – Frank Rizzo
2004 – Charles Sweeney
2014 – Johnny Winter
2017 – George Romero

July 15

70 – Titus and his armies breach the walls of Jerusalem. (July just seems to have been a bad month for the city)

1099 – Christian soldiers of the First Crusade take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a final assault.

1149 – The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.

1741 – Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.

1799 – The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre François Bouchard

1806 – Lt Zebulon Pike begins an expedition of the west from Fort Bellefontaine , Missouri

1862 – On the Mississippi river, the Coinfederate ironclad Arkansas, under the command of  CPT Isaac N. Brown engages the Union flotilla of the Carondelet, Tyler, and Queen of the West, commanded by ADM David Farragut. All ships sustain heavy damage but the Arkansas breaks through to Vicksburg

1870 – Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union under Reconstruction.

1910 – In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer’s disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products, later renamed Boeing.

1918 – The Second Battle of the Marne begins with a German attack.

1975 – The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet/United States human-crewed flight.

2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

2006 – Twitter is launched.

Birthdays
1606 – Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn
1796 – Thomas Bulfinch
1913 – Lloyd ‘Cowboy’ Copas
1925 – Philip Carey
1927 – Carmen Zapata
1931 – Clive Cussler
1935 – Alex Karras
1938 – Barry Goldwater, Jr.
1945 – Jan-Michael Vincent
1946 – Linda Ronstadt
1950 – Arianna Huffington
1951 – Jesse Ventura
1953 – Jean-Bertrand Aristide
1961 – Forest Whitaker
1963 – Brigitte Nielsen
1967 – Adam Savage
1976 – Diane Kruger

Deaths
1381 – FR John Ball
1410 – Ulrich von Jungingen
1542 – Mona Lisa del Giocondo
1904 – Anton Chekhov
1948 – General of the Armies John J. Pershing
1991 – Bert Convy
1997 – Gianni Versace
2012 – Celeste Holm
2017 – Martin Landau
2019 – Steven Fjestad