October 21

1096 – The Seljuk Turks defeat in detail the ‘People’s Army’ of the First Crusade at Helenopolis in Bythnia.

1097 – The ‘Princes Army’ of the First Crusade, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.

1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.

1520 – During is voyage of circumnavigation, Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait near the lower end of South America now named after him

1774 – The flag of Taunton, Massachusetts is the first to include the word “Liberty”.

1797 – The 44 gun U. S. Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.

1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

1861 – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops at Ball’s Bluff Virginia in the second major battle of the war.

1867 – The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed by southern great plains indian tribes requiring them to relocate to reservations in western Oklahoma.

1879 – Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his design for an incandescent light bulb.

1944 – During the Allied invasion of the Phillipines at Leyte, the first kamikaze attack damages HMAS Australia.
The city of Aachen -Aix-la-Chapelle- site of Charlemagne’s Court falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, the first German city to fall to the Allies during World War II

1959 – President Eisenhower approves the transfer of all US Army space-related activities to NASA

1983 – The definition of the meter is redefined as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.

October 20

1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1941 – Thousands of civilians in German occupied Serbia are murdered by Nazi soldiers in the Kragujevac massacre.

1944 – Liquefied natural gas leaks from East Ohio Gas Company storage tanks in Cleveland and then explodes, leveling 30 blocks and killing 130 people.

1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry

1973 –  President Nixon fires Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.

1976 – On the Mississippi river in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, the Luling–Destrehan Ferry George Prince is struck by the Norwegian tanker SS Frosta, killing 78 of the 96 passengers and crew aboard the ferry with no casualties on the tanker.

2011 – Libyan rebel forces capture and kill dictator Muammar Gaddafi in his hometown of Sirte.

October 19

202 BC – At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, leader of the army defending Carthage.

439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa. (bad date for Carthaginians)

1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country; Spain. (and 23 years later at the completion of the Reconquista, permit the Spanish crown to fund the first voyage of Columbus)

1512 – Martin Luther receives his doctorate of theology at the University of Wittenberg

1789 – John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

1864 – While Confederate forces under Lt. Gen. Jubal Early are preliminarily successful in a surprise attack against Union forces under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan at Cedar Creek near Strasburg, Virginia they are ultimately defeated near Middletown, ending the campaign through the Shenandoah valley against Washington D.C.

1900 – Max Planck formulates his scientific law of black body radiation

1944 – U.S. forces land on Leyte island to begin the liberation of the Philippines from Japan occupation

1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points, the highest one day percentage drop at that time.

2004 –  Corporate Airlines Flight 5966, a British Aerospace Jetstream 32, crashes on approach to Kirksville Regional Airport, in Adair County, Missouri, killing both pilots and 11 of the 13 passengers aboard.

2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.

October 18

1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, in Jerusalem  is completely destroyed by caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

1540 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto’s forces destroy the town of Mabila in present day Alabama, killing Chief Tuskaloosa.

1648 – Boston shoemakers form the “Company of Shoomakers”, the first American labor organization.

1851 – Herman Melville’s book Moby-Dick is published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.

1867 – After purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million, the U.S. takes possession of Alaska

1898 – Under terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898, ending the Spanish–American War, the United States takes possession of Puerto Rico from Spain.

1931 – Thomas Edison dies, age 84, at his home, “Glenmont” in Llewellyn Park, West Orange, New Jersey,

1945 – The Russians receive plans for the United States plutonium ‘Fat Man’ bomb from spy Klaus Fuchs employed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.

1979 – The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) begins allowing people to have home satellite earth stations without a federal government license.

2019 – NASA Astronauts Jessica Meir and Christina Koch make the first all-female spacewalk from the International Space Station.

October 17

1448 – An Ottoman army defeats a Hungarian army at the Second Battle of Kosovo.

1604 – Kepler’s Supernova,  SN 1604, is observed in the constellation of Ophiuchus.

1777 – British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 – British General Charles, Earl Cornwallis surrenders his army at the Siege of Yorktown.

1907 – The Marconi Company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service.

1931 – Alphonse Capone is convicted of income tax evasion.

1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

1941 – While still technically a neutral power, the destroyer USS Kearny becomes the first U.S. Navy vessel attacked during World War II, suffering heavy damage from a torpedo fired from a German U-Boat being depth charged by the vessel off Iceland.

1973 – OPEC imposes an oil embargo against countries they deem to have helped Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

1979 – The Department of Education Organization Act creates the U.S. Department of Education.

1989 – A 6.9 magnitude earthquake of the San Andreas Fault, near Mount Loma Prieta, strikes the San Francisco Bay Area and the Central Coast, killing 63 people and causing over $6 billion in damage.

2019 – Heavily armed gangsters of the Sinaloa Drug Cartel force the Mexican government in Culiacán province to release the son of former cartel boss ‘El Chapo’ Guzmán after his arrest.


October 16

1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette is executed on the guillotine

1859 – John Brown, leading 21 men, raids the U.S. Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.

1909 – William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz hold the first summit between a U.S. and a Mexican president.

1919 – Adolf Hitler delivers his first public address at a meeting of the German Workers’ Party.

1939 – 603 Squadron RAF, flying Spitfires, intercepts the first Luftwaffe raid on Great Britain also making the first fighter kill of the war over the country.

1940 – The Warsaw Ghetto is established.

1946 – 10 Nazis found guilty by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg for crimes against humanity are executed by hanging.

1962 – President Kennedy is informed of the aerial photos taken on October 14 of Russian nuclear missiles being installed in Cuba

1991 – A man kills 23 and wounds 20 more people after driving his truck into Luby’s restaurant in Killeen, Texas. One of the patrons, Suzanna Gratia Hupp, left her handgun in her vehicle instead of breaking the law, and later continued to campaign for Texas concealed carry until it was passed into law 4 years later.

1998 – Former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a murder extradition warrant.

October 15

1066 – Following the death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings, Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England by the Witan, but is never crowned before William of Normandy claims the throne.

1529 – The First Siege of Vienna ends with Austrian troops routing the invading Ottoman forces.

1582 – The states of the Holy Roman Empire replace the Julian Calendar with the Gregorian version

1783 – The Montgolfier brother’s hot air balloon makes the first ascent with a human pilot; Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier aboard.

1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason.

1815 – Napoleon begins his second and final exile on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.

1863 – The Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley, sink during a second test run, this time killing its inventor along with the rest of the 8 man crew.

1878 – The Edison Electric Light Company is incorporated in New York.

1917 – Margaretha “Mata Hari” MacLeod is executed by France for espionage.

1945 – The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed for treason.

1946 – Hermann Göring escapes the hangman by taking cyanide.

1954 – Hurricane Hazel strikes the eastern seaboard of North America, killing 95 people and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto.

1979 – A coup d’état in El Salvador overthrows President Carlos Humberto Romero and starts the Salvadoran Civil War.

2018 – 13 year old Jayme Closs is kidnapped from her Barron, Wisconsin home after her parents are murdered by Jake Patterson

October 14

1066 – Having been informed by his scouts of the approach of King Harold Godwinson’s army in an attempt at a surprise attack, Duke William of Normandy marches his troops and the armies engage a few miles northwest of the town of Hastings, resulting in a costly, but overwhelming, victory by the Normans.

1322 – The army of Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats the army of King Edward II of England at the Battle of Old Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence.

1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I of England

1656 – The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends

1863 – At the Battle of Bristoe Station, Confederate troops under the command of A. P. Hill are repelled by Union rear guard troops under the command of Gouverneur K. Warren, failing in the effort to drive Union forces out of Virginia.

1884 – George Eastman receives a U.S. patent for strip type photographic film.

1943 – Prisoners at the NAZI Sobibor extermination camp in Poland covertly assassinate most of the on duty SS officers and then stage a mass breakout.

1944 – Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide due to his involvement in an attempt to assassinate Hitler

1947 – Piloting the Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis rocket plane over Rogers Dry Lake in California, Chuck Yeager becomes the first person to exceed the speed of sound

1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.

1968 – The first live TV broadcast by American astronauts in orbit is performed by the Apollo 7 crew.

1982 – President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.
(really been successful, hasn’t it?)

2004 – Pinnacle Airlines Flight 3701, a Bombardier CRJ200 crashes near Jefferson City, Missouri, while the pilots, the only people aboard, attempt an emergency landing.

October 13

54 – Roman emperor Claudius dies under mysterious circumstances and is succeeded by Nero

1775 – The Continental Congress establishes the Continental Navy

1792 – The cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion is laid by President Washington.

1884 – The International Meridian Conference establishes the meridian of the Greenwich Observatory as the prime meridian.

1903 – The Boston Red Sox win the first modern World Series, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the eighth game.

1962 – The cyclone remnants of Typhoon Freda still at Category 3 intensity, strikes through the Pacific Northwest, killing 46 people.

1976 – The first electron micrograph of an Ebola virus is taken at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by Dr. F. A. Murphy.

1983 – ‘Baby Bell’ company Ameritech Mobile Communications launches the first cellular network in the U.S. in Chicago.

2012 – U.S. Army Sergeant First Class Ryan Savard is killed in action in Konduz Province, Afghanistan.

Hello, Columbus—Celebrate The Great Man!

What if Christopher Columbus hadn’t sailed the ocean blue in 1492?

Woke critics of the great mariner insist that the world would be a better place if he’d stuck closer to the shores of Europe and that, moreover, Columbus himself is unworthy of the great admiration heaped upon him in previous times.

He is the ultimate exemplar of white, male privilege in the woke view. They are wrong.

Columbus remains an inspiring historical figure for those who have not dissolved into a frenzy of hatred of the West. Several columnists are giving us excellent advice on this Columbus Day: David Marcus urges, “Happy Columbus Day, Say It Loud, Say It Proud,” Dave Seminara argues in City Journal that we “Don’t Defend Columbus—Celebrate Him,” and the Daily Signal’s Jarrett Stepman examines the historical record in “The Truth about Columbus.”

As Marcus sees it, Columbus was the first person in history to exemplify the American Dream—he did this before we had America:

Christopher Columbus wasn’t just the man most responsible for opening up the New World to the Old; he was also an example of the American Dream centuries before our nation was born.

The son of a tradesman, he was mainly self-taught in the ways of words and letters and began acquiring his sailing chops as early as age 10. This wasn’t a privileged young man, but rather one who through pluck, will and a healthy Catholic faith, rose far above his humble origins and became one of humanity’s greatest and most ­famous heroes.

At a time when the world is battling a global pandemic and the economic catastrophe of lockdowns, Columbus offers an example to us about balancing the fear of death against the immortal human ­longing for prosperity, achievement and discovery.

Columbus, Marcus writes, contributed to the creation of the modern world—and that’s the rub. Wokesters seek to tear down the modern world. Hence it is only natural that, to the degree they care which statues they pull down (the destruction itself is primary), Columbus is a natural target. Read Marcus’ entire column. Continue reading “”

October 12

539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia under the command of Gubaru takes Babylon, bringing down the Babylonian empire.

1492 – Christopher Columbus’ first expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, somewhere in the Bahamas.

1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from Province of Massachusetts Bay Governor William Phips.

1792 – The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York City.

1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.

1822 – After earlier declaring Brazil’s independence from Portugal, Pedro I of Brazil is proclaimed Emperor.

1849 – The city of Manizales, Colombia, is founded by ‘The Expedition of the 20’.

1870 – Robert E. Lee dies, age 63, at Lexington, Virginia of a stroke suffered 2 weeks earlier.

1892 –On the 400th anniversary of the Columbus expedition, President Harrison proclaims the day ‘Columbus Day’.

1901 – President Theodore Roosevelt officially renames the “Executive Mansion” to the “White House”.

1945 – U.S. Army Combat Medic Corporal Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the Medal of Honor.

2000 – The US Navy Arleigh Burke class destroyer, USS Cole is damaged by two Al Qaida suicide bombers, killing 17 and wounding 39 crew members.

2019 – In New Orleans, the Hard Rock Hotel, which is under construction, collapses, killing 2 and injuring 20.


October 11

1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line, separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.

1776 – During the Revolution, a fleet of American boats on Lake Champlain is defeated by the Royal Navy, but delays the British advance until 1777.

1890 – The Daughters of the American Revolution is founded in Washington, D.C.

1910 – Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. president to fly in an airplane.

1942 – Off the Solomon Islands between Guadalcanal and Savo, U.S. Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese force.

1950 – CBS receives a license to broadcast a color TV signal.

1968 – NASA launches Apollo 7 the first manned mission after the Apollo 1 disaster.

1971 – LTG Lewis ‘Chesty’ Puller USMC dies in Hampton Virginia

1976 – George Washington is posthumously promoted to the grade of General of the Armies. Technically 0-12.

1984 – Aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger, astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan becomes the first American woman to perform a space walk.

2000 – NASA launches Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-92, the 100th Space Shuttle mission.


In western France, the moslem conquest (the ‘left hook’) from Spain into Europe was stopped, but cold.

The Battle of Tours: When the West ‘Manfully Resisted’ Islam

Today in history, on October 10, 732 A.D., an epic battle saved Western Europe from becoming Islamic.

Precisely one hundred years after the death of Islam’s prophet Muhammad in 632 — a century which had seen the conquest of thousands of square miles of formerly Christian lands, including Syria, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain — the scimitar of Islam found itself in the heart of Europe in 732, facing that continent’s chief military power, the Franks.

After the Muslim hordes, which reportedly numbered 80,000 men, had ravaged most of southwestern France, slaughtering and enslaving countless victims, they met and clashed with 30,000 Frankish infantrymen under the leadership of Charles Martel, on October 10, somewhere between Poitiers and Tours.  An anonymous medieval Arab chronicler describes the battle as follows:

Near the river Owar [Loire], the two great hosts of the two languages [Arabic and Latin] and the two creeds [Islam and Christianity] were set in array against each other. The hearts of Abd al-Rahman, his captains and his men were filled with wrath and pride, and they were the first to begin to fight. The Muslim horsemen dashed fierce and frequent forward against the battalions of the Franks, who resisted manfully, and many fell dead on either side, until the going down of the sun.

Entirely consisting of wild headlong charges, the Muslim attack proved ineffective, for “the men of the north stood as motionless as a wall, they were like a belt of ice frozen together, and not to be dissolved, as they slew the Arab with the sword. The Austrasians [eastern Franks], vast of limb, and iron of hand, hewed on bravely in the thick of the fight,” writes one chronicler.  The Franks refused to break ranks and allow successive horsemen to gallop through the gaps, which Arab cavalry tactics relied on. Instead, they tightened their ranks and, “drawn up in a band around their chief [Charles], the people of the Austrasians carried all before them. Their tireless hands drove their swords down to the breasts [of the foe].”

Military historian Victor Davis Hanson offers a more practical take:

When the sources speak of “a wall,” “a mass of ice,” and “immovable lines” of infantrymen, we should imagine a literal human rampart, nearly invulnerable, with locked shields in front of armored bodies, weapons extended to catch the underbellies of any Islamic horsemen foolish enough to hit the Franks at a gallop.

Continue reading “”

October 10

732 – Charles Martel’s army of Franks and Aquitainians defeat an Umayyad army near Tours, France.

1492 – The crew of the Santa Maria nearly mutiny against Columbus.

1845 – In Annapolis, Maryland, the first class of the Naval School, now the United States Naval Academy begins

1913 – President Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike, completing major construction on the Panama Canal.

1928 – Chiang Kai-shek is named Chairman of the government of the Republic of China.

1933 – A United Airlines Boeing 247 crashes near Chesterton, Indiana due to the explosion of an bomb aboard the plane, killing all 7 passengers and crew aboard, the first known instance of aerial sabotage, and which remains unsolved.

1963 – The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.

1985 – US Navy F-14 aircraft of Carrier Air Wing 17, launch off USS Saratoga and intercept Egyptian Airlines Flight 2843, carrying the perpetrators of the Achille Lauro hijacking, forcing it to land at the NATO base at Sigonella, Italy causing an international incident.

2013 – Mercury Aurora 7 Astronaut Scott Carpenter dies at the Denver Hospice Inpatient Care Center, after suffering a stroke.

2018 – Hurricane Michael makes landfall in the Florida Panhandle as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane killing 57 people and causing an estimated $25 billion in damage.

October 9

768 – Brothers Carloman and Charlemagne are crowned kings of the Franks in Noyon, France.

1000 – The Norse sagas record that this day, Leif Ericson discovers “Vinland”, which is likely where a Viking village later named L’Anse aux Meadows, was founded on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

1238 – After retaking Valencia from the moors during the Reconquista, Jaume el Conqueridor of Aragon is crowned as James I of the Kingdom of Valencia.

1635 – Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony after religious and policy disagreements and founds Providence Plantations on land bought from Wampanoag Chief Massasoit, which later becomes the English colony of Rhode Island.

1701 – The Collegiate School of Connecticut, later renamed Yale University, is chartered in New Haven by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut

1812 –  In a naval engagement on Lake Erie during the War of 1812, American naval forces under the command of Lieutenant Jesse Elliott, capture the British ships; HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia.

1825 – The private sloop Restauration arrives in New York Harbor from Norway, the first organized immigration from Norway to the U.S.

1873 – A meeting of 15 naval officers at the U.S. Naval Academy establishes the U.S. Naval Institute.

1936 – Boulder Dam, now renamed Hoover Dam, begins electric power generation

1967 – Ernesto “Che” Guevara is executed for attempting to incite a revolution in Bolivia.

1974 – Oskar Schindler dies in Hildesheim, Germany

2006 – North Korea conducts its first nuclear test.

October 8

451 – The first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins.

1793 – John Hancock, preeminent signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, dies at his home, Hancock Manor, in Boston at age 56.

1918 –  As part of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in World War I, the 328th Infantry Regiment of the 82nd Infantry Division is tasked to capture German positions near Hill 223 along the Decauville railroad, north of Chatel-Chéhéry, France. Coming under heavy machinegun fire, a reinforced squad is detached to flank and take out the guns. During the attack, over half of the detail is killed or wounded and the only NCO left able to fight, Corporal Alvin C. York, single handedly kills 28 German soldiers and forces another 132 to surrender.

1944 – As part of the Drive to the Siegfried Line in World War II, the 1st Battalion,  18th Infantry Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division is tasked to capture Crucifix Hill outside Aachen, Germany. As the 1st Platoon of Charlie Company comes under heavy machinegun fire from multiple pillboxes, the Company Commander, Captain Robert E. Brown uses Bangalore Torpedoes to destroy several emplacements and continues to draw fire to detect other emplacements even after being wounded.

1970 – Aleksander Solzhenitsyn is awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.

1973 – During the Yom Kippur War, Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian occupied positions.

2001 – President George Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.

October 7

1571 – The coalition fleet of the Holy League defeats the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras off Lepanto, Greece.

1691 – The charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued by King William and Queen Mary of England.

1763 – King George III issues the Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing indian lands in North America north and west of the Alleghenies to white settlements.

1777 – American troops under General Gates defeat the British under General Burgoyne at Bemis Heights along the Hudson river in Saratoga county, New York

1780 – American militia defeat royalist militia led by British Major Patrick Ferguson, who is killed in the battle, at King’s Mountain, South Carolina.

1868 – Cornell University opens for business

1963 – President Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

1985 – 4 men from the Palestine Liberation Front hijack the MS Achille Lauro off the coast of Egypt. 69 year old American Leon Klinghoffer, is murdered by the hijackers and thrown overboard.

2001 – The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with air strikes on Kabul,  Kandahar and Jalalabad.

October 6

1066 – Apparently unaware of the size of the invading force that landed in the south, King Harold Godwinson leaves most of his badly mauled army at York, England as he marches the rest south in an attempt to surprise Duke William’s forces as he did to Harald Hardrada’s at Stamford Bridge earlier

1536 – Bible translator William Tyndale is executed for heresy in Belgium.

1539 – The Spanish expedition of Hernado DeSoto takes over the Apalachee tribe’s capital of Anhaica, near modern day Tallahassee Florida, for their winter quarters.

1777 – To create a diversion to split the American forces of General Gates defending the Hudson River valley, British forces under the command of General Sir Henry Clinton capture Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery, and dismantle the Hudson River Chain.

1884 – The Naval War College of the United States is founded in Rhode Island.

1942 – American troops complete operations to force Japanese troops from their positions east of the Matanikau River on Guadalcanal.

1973 – Egypt and Syria launch coordinated attacks against Israel, beginning the Yom Kippur War.

1981 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated at a military parade in Cairo, by members of Al-Jama’a al-Islamiyya

1993 – A mortar attack on the U.S. compound at Mogadishu, Somalia kills 1 Delta Force soldier, Sergeant Matthew Rierson and wounds another 12 U.S. service members.

1995 – The first planet orbiting another sun, 51 Pegasi b, is discovered.

2007 – Jason Lewis aboard Moksha completes the first human-powered circumnavigation of the Earth.

October 5

1813 –During the War of 1812, the Army of the Northwest defeats a British and Native Canadian force threatening Detroit.

1869 – The Eastman tunnel built under the Mississippi river in Minnesota,  collapses during construction, causing a landslide that nearly destroys St. Anthony Falls.

1877 – The Nez Perce War in the northwestern United States comes to an end as Chief Joseph surrenders to Brigadier General Nelson Miles.

1905 – The Wright brothers pilot the Wright Flyer III in world record flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes around Huffman Field, Ohio.

1914 – During World War I, French pilot Sgt. Joseph Frantz and his mechanic/gunner, Louis Quénault, flying a Voisin biplane,  shoot down a German Aviatik biplane near Reims, the first confirmed aerial combat victory.

1921 – The World Series between the New York Giants and the New York Yankees, is the first to be broadcast on radio and is also the last to use the best-of-nine games format

1938 – In Nazi Germany, Jews’ passports are invalidated.

1943 – 98 American prisoners of war are executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

1947 – President Truman makes the first televised address from the Oval Office

1966 – At the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station near Detroit, prototype reactor 1 suffers a partial meltdown.

1982 – Tylenol products are recalled after bottles in Chicago laced with cyanide cause 7 deaths.

2003 – Timothy Treadwell and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard are eaten by a bear in the Katmai National Park, Alaska.

October 4

1535 – The Coverdale Bible is printed, named for one of the English translators, Myles Coverdale.

1582 – The Gregorian Calendar is introduced by Pope Gregory XIII.

1669 – Rembrandt van Rijn dies in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic

1777 – At Germantown, Pennsylvania, American troops under George Washington are forced to retreat from the city after engaging British troops under William Howe.

1853 – The Crimean War begins when the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Russian Empire.

1883 – The Orient Express begins service between Paris and Constantinople.

1918 – An explosion at the T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Company in  Sayreville, New Jersey kills an estimated 100 people; estimated because the employee records were destroyed in the blast and many victims were consumed in the blast and resultant fires.

1927 – Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mount Rushmore.

1957 – Sputnik 1 is launched into orbit by the Soviet Union.

1960 – Eastern Air Lines Flight 375, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashes on takeoff from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts, after running into a large flock of birds, killing 62 of the 72 passengers and crew on board, those surviving due to being thrown clear of the plane on impact into Winthrop Bay.

1992 – The Rome General Peace Accords end a 16-year civil war in Mozambique.

1993 – U.S. forces are relieved by U.N. UNISOM forces and exit the Bakarra market area of Mogadishu, Somalia

2004 – Mojave Aerospace Ventures’ SpaceShipOne wins the $10 million Ansari X Prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable crewed spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
On the same day, astronaut Gordon Cooper, the last U.S. astronaut to fly alone into space, dies at his home in Ventura, California.

2009 – The Battle of Kamdesh in Nuristan Province Afghanistan ends with the Combat Outpost Keating being nearly destroyed by attacking Taliban forces resulting in the deaths of 8 U.S. service members; SSG Justin Gallegos, SGTs Joshua Hardt, Joshua Kirk, Vernon Martin, SPCs Christopher Griffin, Stephan Mace, Michael Scusa, and PFC Kevin Thomson.

2017 – During Operation Obsidian Nomad, a combined task force of American and Nigerien Special Forces are ambushed by Islamic State militants outside the village of Tongo Tongo, Niger, resulting in the deaths of 4 Nigerien;  CW Bagué Soumana, Pvts Abdoul Yerimah, Yacouba Issoufou, Cdt Goubé Issaka, and 4 U.S. service members; SSGs Bryan Black, Jeremiah Johnson, Dustin Wright, SGT La David Johnson.