April 21

753 BC – Romulus founds Rome. ROMA SUMMUS AMOR

1509 – Henry VIII ascends the throne of England

1792 – Joaquim José da Silva Xavier Tiradentes, leader of the Inconfidência Mineira revolutionary movement for Brazil’s independence, is hanged, drawn and quartered.

1836 – In less than 18 minutes of battle, Republic of Texas forces under General Sam Houston defeat Mexican troops under General Antonio López de Santa Anna at San Jacinto.

1898 – During the Spanish–American War,  the U.S. Navy begins a blockade of Cuban ports.

1918 – German fighter ace, Manfred, Baron von Richthofen, is shot down, and killed over Vaux-sur-Somme in France.

1945 – Soviet forces attack the German High Command headquarters at Zossen, 20 miles south of Berlin.

1958 – United Airlines Flight 736, a Douglas DC-7, collides into a U.S. Air Force F-100 Super Saber fighter jet near Arden, Nevada killing all 47 aboard along with the 2 Air Force pilots

1960 – The new capital of Brazil, Brasília is officially inaugurated.  At 09:30, the Three Powers of the Republic are simultaneously transferred from the old capital, Rio de Janeiro.

1962 – The first World’s Fair in the United States since World War II opens in Seattle, Washington.

1975 – President of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu flees Saigon, as Xuân Lộc, the last South Vietnamese outpost blocking a direct North Vietnamese assault on Saigon, falls.

1982 – Rollie Fingers of the Milwaukee Brewers becomes the first Major League relief pitcher to record 300 saves.

1985 – The compound of the group The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord in northern Arkansas, surrenders to federal authorities after a two-day siege.

2014 – During a budget crisis, the city of Flint, Michigan switches its water source from water supplied by the Detroit Water and Sewerage Department water to the Flint River. Residents almost immediately being filing complaints about the taste, smell, and appearance of the water.

April 20

1775 – Following the battles at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts militias block land access to Boston, limiting British resupply and reinforcements to only from the sea.

1836 – Congress passes an act creating the Wisconsin Territory.

1861 – Colonel Robert E. Lee, commander of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Regiment,  resigns his commission in the United States Army to avoid, as he saw it, the dishonor of disobeying official orders to engage his troops against Virginia.

1898 – President McKinley signs a joint resolution to Congress for declaration of war against Spain.

1914 – 19 men, women, and children participating in a strike are killed in the Ludlow Massacre during the Colorado Coalfield War.

1945 – Adolf Hitler makes his last trip to the surface from the Führerbunker  in Berlin to award Iron Crosses to soldiers of the Hitler Youth.

1961 – The invasion of the Bay of Pigs in Cuba by U.S. backed Cuban exiles fails.

1972 – The lunar module Orion, of Apollo 16 , commanded by John Young and piloted by Charles Duke, lands on the moon.

1998 – Air France Flight 422, a Boeing 727 crashes after taking off from El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, Colombia, killing all 53 people on board.

1999 – Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold shoot and kill 13 people and wound 24 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado.

2007 – William Phillips barricades himself in NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas before shooting and killing a hostage and himself.

2010 – The Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explodes in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven workers and beginning an oil spill that would last six months.

Today Should Be a National Holiday: An Annual Tradition.

If there were any justice today would be a national holiday at least as big as Independence Day.  I’m not kidding.

Back in the 1770’s an unrest that had started more than a century before–with Colonial reaction to the English Civil War, the Catholic reign of James II, and the Glorious Revolution that followed–was growing in the American colonies, at least those along the Atlantic Seaboard from New Hampshire down through Georgia.  Protests over taxes imposed without the taxed having any voice in the matter, complaints about a distant monarch and legislative body making rules and laws over people to whom they are not beholden.

There had been clashes which fed that unrest, including the famous “Boston Massacre” where British troops fired into a rioting mob resulting in several deaths.  Think of it as the Kent State of the 18th century.

In an effort to quell the unrest, or at least have it be less of a threat to British officials, General Thomas Gage, Military governor of Massachusetts, under orders to take decisive action against the colonists, decided to confiscate firearms and ammunition from certain groups in the colony.  His forces marched on the night of April 18, 1775.

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Date Line – BOSTON,

Units of the Governor’s Counter Terrorist Task Force seeking to confiscate a cache of recently banned assault weapons were ambushed on April 19th by elements of a para-military extremist faction. Military and law enforcement sources estimated that 72 were killed and more than 20 injured before government forces were compelled to withdraw.

Speaking after the clash, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Gage declared that the extremist faction, which was made up of local citizens, has links to the radical right-wing tax protest movement. Gage blamed the extremists for recent incidents of vandalism directed against internal revenue offices.

The governor, who described the group’s organizers as “criminals,” issued an executive order authorizing the summary arrest of any individual who has interfered with the government’s efforts to secure law and order.

The military raid on the extremist arsenal followed wide spread refusal by the local citizenry to turn over recently outlawed assault weapons. Gage issued a ban on military style assault weapons and ammunition earlier in the week. This decision followed a meeting in early April between government and military leaders at which the governor authorized the forcible confiscation of illegal arms. One government official, speaking on condition of anonymity, pointed out that “none of these people would have been killed had the extremists obeyed the law and turned their weapons over voluntarily.”

“Government troops initially succeeded in confiscating a large supply of outlawed weapons and ammunition. However, troops attempting to seize arms and ammunition in Lexington met with resistance from heavily-armed extremists who had been tipped off regarding the government’s plans.”

During a tense standoff in Lexington’s town park, Colonel Francis Smith, commander of the government operation, ordered the armed group to surrender and return to their homes. The impasse was broken by a single shot, which was reportedly fired by one of the right-wing extremists. Eight civilians were killed in the ensuing exchange.

Ironically, the local citizenry blamed government forces rather than the extremists for the civilian deaths. Before order could be restored, armed citizens from surrounding areas had descended upon the guard units. Colonel Smith, finding his forces overmatched by the armed mob, ordered a retreat.

Governor Gage has called upon citizens to support the state/national joint task force in its effort to restore law and order. The governor has also demanded the surrender of those responsible for planning and leading the attack against the government troops. Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, and John Hancock, who have been identified as “ringleaders” of the extremist faction, remain at large.

Captain John Parker, Massachusetts Militia;
“Stand your ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”

General Gage’s orders for the confiscation and destruction of arms of the Massachusetts Militia.

Lieut. Colonel Smith, 10th Regiment ’Foot,


Having received intelligence, that a quantity of Ammunition, Provisions, Artillery, Tents and small Arms, have been collected at Concord, for the Avowed Purpose of raising and supporting a Rebellion against His Majesty, you will March with a Corps of Grenadiers and Light Infantry, put under your Command, with the utmost expedition and Secrecy to Concord, where you will seize and distroy all Artillery, Ammunition, Provisions, Tents, Small Arms, and all Military Stores whatever. But you will take care that the Soldiers do not plunder the Inhabitants, or hurt private property.

You have a Draught of Concord, on which is marked the Houses, Barns, &c, which contain the above military Stores. You will order a Trunion to be knocked off each Gun, but if its found impracticable on any, they must be spiked, and the Carriages destroyed. The Powder and flower must be shook out of the Barrels into the River, the Tents burnt, Pork or Beef destroyed in the best way you can devise. And the Men may put Balls of lead in their pockets, throwing them by degrees into Ponds, Ditches &c., but no Quantity together, so that they may be recovered afterwards. If you meet any Brass Artillery, you will order their muzzles to be beat in so as to render them useless.

You will observe by the Draught that it will be necessary to secure the two Bridges as soon as possible, you will therefore Order a party of the best Marchers, to go on with expedition for the purpose.

A small party of Horseback is ordered out to stop all advice of your March getting to Concord before you, and a small number of Artillery go out in Chaises to wait for you on the road, with Sledge Hammers, Spikes, &c.

You will open your business and return with the Troops, as soon as possible, with I must leave to your own Judgment and Discretion.

I am, Sir,

Your most obedient humble servant
Thos. Gage.

Major John Pitcairn’s Report to General Gage

Boston Camp,
To: General Thomas Gage


As you are anxious to know the particulars that happened near and at Lexington in the 19 th Inst agreeable to your desire, I will in as concise a manner as possible state the facts, for my time at present is so much employed, as to prevent a more particular narrative of the occurrences of that day.

Six companies of Light Infantry were detached by Lt Colo Smith to take possession of two bridges on the other side of Concord, near three in the Morning, when we were advanced within about two miles of Lexington, intelligence was received that about 500 men in arms were assembled, determined to oppose the Kings troops, and retard them in their march. On this intelligence, I mounted my horse, and galloped up to the six Light Companies.

When I arrived at the head of the advance Company, two officers came and informed me, that a man of the rebels advanced from those that were assembled, had presented his musket and attempted to shoot them, but the piece flashed in the pan. On this I gave directions to the troops to move forward, but on no account to fire, or even attempt it without orders; when I arrived at the end of the Village, I observed drawn up upon a Green near 200 rebels; when I came within about 100 yards of them, they began to file off towards some stone walls on our right flank.

The Light Infantry, observing this, ran after them. I instantly called to the soldiers not to fire, but surround and disarm them, and after several repetitions of those positive orders to the men, not to fire, etc. some of the rebels who had jumped over the wall fired four or five shots at the soldiers, which wounded a man of the Tenth and my horse was wounded in two places, from some quarter or other, and at the same time several shots were fired from a meeting house on our left.

Upon this, without any order or regularity, the Light Infantry began a scattered fire, and continued in that situation for some little time, contrary to the repeated orders both of me and the officers that were present. It will be needless to mention what happened after, as I suppose Colo Smith hath given a particular account of it..

I am, Sir, Your Most Obedt
Humble Servant
John Pitcairn

A report from Lieutenant General Hugh Percy to General Gage

In obedience to your Excellency’s orders I marched yesterday morning at 9 o’clock with the 1st brigade and 2 field pieces, in order to cover the retreat of the grenadiers and light infantry in their return from their expedition to Concord.

As all the houses were shut up, and there was not the appearance of a single inhabitant, I could get no intelligence concerning them till I had passed Menotomy, when I was informed that the rebels had attacked his Majesty’s troops who were retiring, overpowered by numbers, greatly exhausted and fatigued, and having expaned almost all their ammunition—and at about 2 o’clock I met them retiring rough the town of Lexington – I immediately ordered the 2 field pieces to fire at the rebels, and drew up the brigade on a height.

The shot from the cannon had the desired effect, and stopped the rebels for a little time, who immediately dispersed, and endeavoured to surround us being ery numerous. As it began now to grow pretty late and we had 15 miles to retire, and only 36 rounds, I ordered the grenadiers and light infantry to move of first; and covered them with my brigade sending out very strong flanking parties wich were absolutely very necessary, as there was not a stone wall, or house, though before in appearance evacuated, from whence the rebels did not fire upon us. As soon as they saw us begin to retire, they pressed very much upon our rear guard, which for that reason, I relieved every now and then.

In this manner we retired for 15 miles under incessant fire all round us, till we arrived at Charlestown, between 7 and 8 in the evening and having expended almost all our ammunition. We had the misfortune of losing a good many men in the retreat, though nothing like the number which from many circumstances I have reason to believe were killed of the rebels. His Majesty’s troops during he whole of the affair behaved with their usual intrepidity and spirit nor were they a little exsperated at the cruelty and barbarity of the rebels, who scalped and cut off the ears of some of the wounded men who fell into their hands.

April 19

1775 – At Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts militia confront British troops marching to confiscate arms and military supplies.

1782 – John Adams secures Dutch recognition of the United States as an independent government. The house which he had purchased in The Hague becomes the first American embassy.

1861 –In Baltimore, Maryland, a group of pro-Secession protesters attacks U.S. Army troops marching through the city.

1943 – In Warsaw, Poland, the Ghetto Uprising begins, after German troops enter the Warsaw Ghetto to round up the remaining Jews.

1956 – Actress Grace Kelly marries Prince Rainier of Monaco.

1971 – Charles Manson is sentenced to death, which is later commuted to life imprisonment, for conspiracy in the Tate–LaBianca murders.

1985 – 200 ATF and FBI agents lay siege to the compound of the survivalist group The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord near Three Brothers, Arkansas

1989 – Aboard the USS Iowa, an explosion of the center 16 inch gun in Gun Turret 2 kills all 47 sailors in the turret.

1993 – The 51 day siege by the FBI of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, ends when a fire breaks out. 76 Davidians, including 18 children under the age of 10, die in the fire.

1995 –  The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, is bombed, killing 168 people including 19 children under the age of 6.

2013 – In the city suburb of Watertown, Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev is killed in a shootout with police. His brother Dzhokhar is later captured hiding in a boat inside a backyard.

The Real Story of Revere’s Ride

In 1774 and the spring of 1775 Paul Revere was employed by the Boston Committee of Correspondence and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety as an express rider to carry news, messages, and copies of important documents as far away as New York and Philadelphia.

On the evening of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere was summoned by Dr. Joseph Warren of Boston and given the task of riding to Lexington, Massachusetts, with the news that regular troops were about to march into the countryside northwest of Boston. According to Warren, these troops planned to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were staying at a house in Lexington, and probably continue on to the town of Concord, to capture or destroy military stores — gunpowder, ammunition, and several cannon — that had been stockpiled there (in fact, the British troops had no orders to arrest anyone — Dr. Warren’s intelligence on this point was faulty).

Revere contacted an unidentified friend (probably Robert Newman, the sexton of Christ Church in Boston’s North End) and instructed him to show two lanterns in the tower of Christ Church (now called the Old North Church) as a signal in case Revere was unable to leave town. The two lanterns meant that the British troops planned to row “by sea” across the Charles River to Cambridge, rather than march “by land” out Boston Neck.

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April 18

1506 – The cornerstone of the current St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome is laid.

1521 – Trial of Martin Luther begins its second day during the assembly of the Diet of Worms.

1775 – Paul Revere and others ride to warn the leadership of the rebellion, and militia that British troops are moving out from Boston towards Concord

1783 – The first instance of slaves in the U.S. being counted as three fifths of persons (for the purpose of taxation), is introduced as a resolution of the Congress of the Confederation to be part of the Articles of Confederation.

1831 – The University of Alabama is founded in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

1847 – U.S. troops under General Winfield Scott outflank General Santa Anna’s forces in battle at Sierra Gordo, near Xalapa, the capital of Veracruz,  during the Mexican-American War, opening the way for the further invasion of Mexico.

1912 – The Cunard liner RMS Carpathia brings 705 of the survivors from the RMS Titanic to New York City.

1923 – Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, New York opens for the Yankees’ first home game, hosting the Boston Red Sox.

1942 – 16 specially modified B-25B Mitchell bombers, led by LTC James Doolittle, are launched from the U.S. Navy carrier, CV-8 USS Hornet on a mission to attack targets in Japan.

1943 – Over Bougainville Island in the Solomons, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto IJN is killed when his aircraft is shot down by U.S. P-38 Lightning fighters after radio messages informing Japanese bases of the schedule of his inspection tour had been intercepted and decoded.

1983 – A suicide bomber in Lebanon destroys the U.S. embassy in Beirut, killing 63 people.

1988 – In retaliation for the USS Samuel B. Roberts striking an Iranian mine in the Persian Gulf, the U.S. launches Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian naval forces in the largest naval battle since World War II.

1997 – Due to heavy snow and ice melts up stream, several dikes are beaches along the Red River of the North, causing flooding in Minnesota, North Dakota, and Southern Manitoba resulting in over $3.5 billion in property damage.

2019 – A redacted version of the Mueller Report is released to the United States Congress and the public.

April 17

1492 – Queen Isabella, King Ferdinand and Christopher Columbus sign the negotiated Capitulations of Santa Fe for his voyage to Asia to acquire spices, granting him the titles of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, Viceroy, Governor General, the honorific Don, and also the tenth part of all riches to be obtained from his intended voyage.

1521 – Trial of Martin Luther over his religious teachings begins during the assembly of the Diet of Worms.

1524 – In the service of King Francis I of France, Florentine Giovanni da Verrazzano is the first European to reach New York harbor during his voyage of exploration of the Atlantic coast of North America between what is now Florida and New Brunswick.

1861 – The state of Virginia’s secession convention votes to secede from the United States, later becoming the eighth state to join the Confederate States of America.

1905 – The Supreme Court decides in Lochner v. New York, holding that the “right to free contract” is implicit in the due process clause of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.

1907 – The Ellis Island immigration center sets a record processing 11,747 people in one day.

1961 – A group of Cuban exiles financed and trained by the CIA lands at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba with the aim of ousting Fidel Castro.

1969 – Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Robert F. Kennedy and sentenced to death with the sentenced later commuted to life imprisonment.

1970 – The Apollo 13 astronauts return to Earth safely when their Command Module Odyssey splashed down in the Pacific ocean, southeast of American Samoa.

1978 – The leader of the Parcham faction of People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, Mir Akbar Khyber, is assassinated in Kabul.

2013 – While emergency services personnel were responding to a fire set by an arsonist at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas, ammonium nitrate in the structure explodes, killing 15 people and injures 160 others.

2014 – NASA’s Kepler space telescope confirms the discovery of the first Earth-size planet, Kepler-186F orbiting in the habitable zone of the red dwarf Kepler-186.

April 16

73 – Masada, a Jewish fortress on the eastern edge of the Judaean Desert, falls to the Romans after several months of siege, ending the 1st Jewish–Roman War.

1582 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.

1818 – Following the end of The War of 1612, the U.S. Senate ratifies the Rush–Bagot Treaty, limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.

1908 – Natural Bridges National Monument is established in Utah.

1943 – First made by him in 1938 during experiments with ergot fungus found on grain,  Albert Hofmann accidentally discovers the hallucinogenic effects of the research drug LSD.

1945 – U.S. Army troops liberate Nazi prisoner of war camp Offizierslager IV-C at Castle Colditz.

1947 – An explosion on board the French registered vessel SS Grandcamp at Port of Texas City, Texas, Galveston Bay, causes the city to catch fire, killing almost 600.

1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.

1963 – Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. pens his Letter from Birmingham Jail while incarcerated in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting against segregation.

1972 – Apollo 16 is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida with astronauts
John Young, Thomas ‘Ken’ Mattingly and Charley Duke aboard.

1990 – “Doctor Death”, Jack Kevorkian, participates in his first assisted suicide, aiding Janet Elaine Adkins in a campground near Pontiac, Michigan.

2007 –  Seung-Hui Cho,  previously diagnosed with severe depression, shoots and kills 32 people and wounds 17 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in Blacksburg, Virginia, before committing suicide.

April 15

1715 – The massacre of a colonial delegation to the Yamasee  tribe at their village triggers the start of the Yamasee War in colonial South Carolina.

1817 – Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc found the American School for the Deaf, the first American school for deaf students, in Hartford, Connecticut.

1861 – After the fall of Fort Sumter, President Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers to quell hostilities in South Carolina that soon become Civil War.

1865 – President Lincoln dies after being shot the previous evening by actor John Wilkes Booth.

1892 – The General Electric Company is formed in Schenectady, New York.

1896 – The Games of the I Olympiad in Athens, Greece end.

1900 – Filipino guerrillas launch a surprise attack on U.S. infantry and begin a siege of Catubig, Philippines during the Philippine-American War

1912 – RMS Titanic sinks in the North Atlantic at 2:20 a.m., two hours and forty minutes after hitting an iceberg. Only 710 of 2,224 passengers and crew on board survive.

1920 – During a robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company in South Braintree, Massachusetts, 2 security guards are murdered. A few weeks later. anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are arrested and charged with the crimes.

1922 – Senator John B. Kendrick of Wyoming introduces a resolution calling for an investigation of a secret land deal made a week earlier, which leads to the discovery of the Teapot Dome scandal.

1947 – Jackie Robinson starts as a first baseman for the Brooklyn Dodgers against the New York Yankees in an pre-season game at Ebbets Field, Brooklyn.

1952 – The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress flies for the first time.

1969 – A North Korean MiG-21 shoots down a U.S  Navy Lockheed EC-121M Warning Star, call sign Deep Sea 129, of VQ-1, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron One, over the Sea of Japan, killing all 31 on board.

1986 – The U.S.  launches Operation El Dorado Canyon, a series of bombing raids against Libyan targets in response to a discotheque bombing in West Germany that killed 3 U.S. servicemen.

2013 – Near the finish line at the Boston Marathon, 2 pressure cooker improvised bombs explode, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others.

2019 – The cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris is seriously damaged by a large fire.

April 14

1294 – Temür Khan, grandson of Kublai Khan, is elected Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.

1775 – The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage is organized in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush.

1865 – While Secretary of State William Seward and his family are attacked at home by Lewis Powell, President Lincoln is shot in Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth as part of a wider assassination conspiracy.

1881 – 2 days after taking the position of City Marshall, Dallas Stoudenmire and Country Constable Gus Krempkau are engaged in a running gunfight in El Paso, Texas, where in 5 seconds, Stoudenmire kills 3 men  including the one who had shot and killed Constable Krempkau; Known as “The 4 Dead In 5 Seconds Gunfight”.

1906 – The Azusa Street Revival opens in Los Angeles, California, launching Pentecostalism as a worldwide movement.

1909 – A massacre is organized by the Ottoman Empire against the Armenian population of Adana Vilayet, in Cilicia, killing 25,000 people.

1912 – The White Star Line passenger liner RMS Titanic hits an iceberg off the Grand Banks in the North Atlantic Ocean at 23:40 hrs ship’s time.

1981 – STS-1, the first operational flight of Shuttle Columbia completes its first test flight, landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

1988 – The Oliver Perry Class Guided Missile Frigate, FFG-58- USS Samuel B. Roberts strikes a mine and is severely damaged in the Persian Gulf during Operation Earnest Will.

1994 – In a U.S. friendly fire incident during Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, two Air Force F-15s mistakenly shoot down 2 Army Blackhawk helicopters, killing 26 people.

2003 – U.S. troops in Baghdad capture Muhammad Zaidan, known as Abu Abbas, leader of the Palestinian group that killed an American on the hijacked cruise liner the MS Achille Lauro in 1985.

2005 – The Oregon Supreme Court nullifies marriage licenses issued to same sex couples a year earlier by Multnomah County.

April 13

1613 – Samuel Argall, having captured Pocahontas in Passapatanzy, Virginia, sets off with her to Jamestown with the intention of exchanging her for English prisoners held by her father.

1861 – After hours of artillery bombardment, Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.

1870 – The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded.

1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of President Jefferson’s birth.

1953 – CIA director Allen Dulles launches the mind-control program Project MKUltra.

1958 – American pianist Van Cliburn is awarded first prize at the inaugural International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.

1960 – Transit 1-B, the world’s first satellite navigation system is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

1970 – While en route to the Moon, an oxygen tank aboard the Apollo 13 Service Module explodes, causing major damage to the Apollo command and service module Odyssey.

1976 –  As part of the U.S. bicentennial celebration, the Treasury Department reintroduces the two-dollar bill with the portrait of Thomas Jefferson on the 233rd anniversary of his birthday.

1976 – Forty workers die in an explosion at the Lapua ammunition factory, the deadliest accidental disaster in modern history in Finland.

1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.

2017 – The US drops a GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb, the largest ever non-nuclear weapon in an airstrike against an Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province tunnel complex in Achin District, Afghanistan.


April 11

1689 – William III and Mary II are crowned as joint sovereigns of Great Britain.

1713 – In the Dutch city of Utrecht, France signs a peace treaty with Great Britain and the Netherlands, formally ending ‘Queen Anne’s War’ in North America and the English colonies.

1876 – The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks club is organized in New York City.

1881 – Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia as the Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary.

1945 – A detachment of troops of the U.S. 9th Armored Infantry Battalion,  6th Armored Division, 3rd Army, and under the command of Captain Frederic Keffer, liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar Germany.

1951 – President Truman relieves General of the Army Douglas MacArthur of the command of American forces in Korea and Japan.

1961 – The war crimes trial of nazi officer Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.

1964 – Brazilian Marshal Humberto de Alencar Branco is elected President by the National Congress.

1965 – The Palm Sunday tornado outbreak of 51 tornadoes hits 6  midwestern states, killing 256 people.

1968 – President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1968 into law, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.

1970 –The Apollo 13 mission is launched from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts, James Lovell, John Swigert and Fred W. Haise aboard.

1976 – The Apple Computer 1 desktop computer is released for sale by the Apple Computer Company.

1986 – In Dade County, Florida,  a gun fight breaks out between a pair of bank robbers and pursuing FBI agents. During the firefight, FBI agents Jerry L. Dove and Benjamin P. Grogan are killed, while 5 other agents are wounded before the bandits are finally killed.

1993 – On Easter Sunday, approximately 450 prisoners riot over prison conditions at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility in Lucasville, Ohio, taking 8 guards hostage, later killing 1 guard and 9 other inmates before surrendering 10 days later.

2001 – The detained crew of a U. S. Navy EP-3E aircraft that landed in Hainan, China on April 1, after a collision with a Chinese jet fighter, is released.

2002 – In Caracas, Venezuela , 19 protesters are killed during a march of over 200 thousand people demanding the resignation of president Hugo Chávez.

April 10

1606 – The Virginia Company of London is established by royal charter by James I of England with the purpose of establishing colonial settlements in North America.

1815 – The Mount Tambora volcano in what is now Indonesia, begins a three month long eruption, lasting until July. The eruption kills 71,000 people, and causes the 1816 ‘Year without a summer’ in the northern hemisphere.

1816 – The Federal government charters the Second Bank of the United States.

1865 – A day after his surrender to Union forces, General Robert E. Lee issues General Order No. 9, explaining the terms of the surrender and his farewell to his troops.

1866 – The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) is founded in New York City by Henry Bergh.

1872 – The first Arbor Day is celebrated in Nebraska City, Nebraska with 1 million trees being planted.

1887 – On Easter Sunday, Pope Leo XIII authorizes the establishment of the Catholic University of America in Washington D.C.

1912 – RMS Titanic sets sail from Southampton, England on her maiden  voyage.

1916 – The Professional Golfers’ Association of America (PGA) is created in New York City.

1925 – The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is first published in New York City, by Charles Scribner’s Sons.

1939 – Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered From Alcoholism, the organization’s “Big Book” and the source of its name, is first published.

1944 – Rudolf Vrba and Alfréd Wetzler escape from Birkenau death camp and write a detailed report, published by the U.S. government War Refugee Board, about the mass murder being committed there.

1963 – U.S. submarine SSN-593, the USS Thresher sinks at sea during deep-diving tests about 220 miles east of Boston, Massachusetts with all 129 hands aboard lost.

1971 – In an attempt to thaw relations with the United States, China hosts the U.S. table tennis team for a visit called ‘Ping-pong diplomacy’.

1979 – The Red River Valley tornado outbreak has an F4 tornado hit Wichita Falls, Texas killing 42 people.

2019 – Scientists at the global array radio telescope Event Horizon Telescope project announce the first image of a black hole, located in the center of the Messier 87 galaxy in Virgo.


April 9

1682 – Robert Cavelier de La Salle discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River, claims the area for France and names it Louisiana in honor of King Louis IV

1784 – The Treaty of Paris, ratified by Congress on January 14, is ratified by King George III of Great Britain, ending the American Revolutionary War.

1865 – Meeting with General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, General Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia.

1942 – Meeting with General Kameichiro Nagano, General Edward P. King, surrenders the U.S and Filipino forces on the Bataan peninsula.

1945 – The United States Atomic Energy Commission is formed.

1947 – The Glazier–Higgins–Woodward tornado outbreak kills 181 people and injures 970 across Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.

1948 –Riots break out when socialist presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán is assassinated in Bogotá.

1959 – NASA announces the selection of the first seven astronauts for project Mercury.

1967 – The first Boeing 737 makes its maiden flight.

1992 – Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega is found guilty in U.S. federal court of drug and racketeering charges and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

2014 – A student  at Franklin Regional High School in Murrysville, Pennsylvania knifes 20 other students and a security guard before being subdued by an assistant principal, aided by another student.

April 8

1271 – Using a forged letter purportedly from the their Grand Master, Sultan Al-Malik Baibars of Egypt fools the crusader Knights Hospitallers at the Krak des Chevaliers fortress castle in Syria into surrendering after a short siege.

1730 – Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.

1820 – The Venus de Milo is discovered on the Aegean island off Milos.

1832 –  The U.S. 6th Infantry regiment is deploy into Illinois from St. Louis, Missouri to engage the Sauk tribe led by Chief Black Hawk who invaded from indian territory in Iowa.

1865 – At Appomattox Station, Virginia, Union cavalry under General Custer seize critical supplies needed by Confederate troops, also blocking General Lee’s line of march to the west.
General Lee receives a reply from General Grant about surrender terms and replies that he wishes to meet Grant in the morning of the next day.

1895 – In the case of Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Co. the Supreme Court rules unapportioned income tax imposed by the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, to be unconstitutional. This ruling provided the impetus for the 16th amendment and the current income tax scheme.

1913 – The 17th Amendment to the Constitution, changing election of Senators by state legislatures to a direct popular vote, becomes law.

1924 –Kemal Atatürk abolishes Sharia courts in Turkey.

1943 – President Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases by common carriers and public utilities.

1952 – President Truman ‘nationalizes’ all domestic steel mills several hours before steelworkers plan on going out on strike. The Supreme Court rules in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer that the seizure is unconstitutional and the steelworkers strike until late July.

1959 – The Organization of American States drafts an agreement to create the Inter-American Development Bank to provide financial services for central American and Caribbean nations.

2013 – The Islamic State of Iraq enters the Syrian Civil War. merging with the Al-Nusra Front under the name Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham.

April 7

451 – Attila the Hun sacks the town of Metz and attacks other cities in Gaul.

1521 – Ferdinand Magellan arrives at Cebu in the Philippines on his voyage of circumnavigation.

1776 – After a fierce, one-hour fight off the Delaware Capes, Captain John Barry, commanding USS Lexington, captures HMS Edward,  renamed USS Sachem and commanded by Captain Isaiah Robinson, for use by the Secret Committee of the Continental Congress.

1788 – American pioneers to the Northwest Territory establish Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory.

1798 – The Mississippi Territory is organized from disputed territory claimed by both the United States and Spain.

1805 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition breaks winter camp at Fort Mandan near present day Washburn, North Dakota and resumes its journey west along the Missouri River in canoes, sending the keelboat back to St. Louis to return later.

1827 – John Walker, an English chemist, sells the first friction match that he had invented the previous year.

1831 – Emperor Pedro I of Brazil resigns to return to Portugal as King Pedro IV.

1865 – At the South Side Railroad’s bridges over the Appomattox River near Farmville, Virginia, Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet’s rear guard fails in the attempt to burn the bridges to prevent Union forces from following them across allowing them to catch up with the Confederates north of the river at Cumberland Church north of Farmville.
Later that night General Lee receives a letter from General Grant proposing that the Army of Northern Virginia should surrender. Lee returns a letter asking about the surrender terms Grant might propose.

1922 – The United States Secretary of the Interior, Albert Bacon Fall, accepts bribes to lease federal petroleum reserves on the Teapot Dome in Wyoming to private oil companies on excessively generous terms.

1927 – The first long distance public television broadcast from Washington, D.C., to New York City, displays the image of then Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover.

1940 – Booker T. Washington becomes the first African American to be depicted on a United States postage stamp.

1945 – During Operation Ten-Go, the last major Japanese naval operation of World War II, the battleship Yamato, sent on a suicide mission, is sunk by American aircraft shortly after getting underway.

1948 – The World Health Organization is established by the United Nations.

1954 – President Eisenhower presents his “falling domino theory” of communist aggression during a news conference.

1964 – IBM introduces the mainframe System/360 computer system.

1978 – Development of the neutron, enhanced radiation nuclear bomb is canceled by President Carter.

1983 – During STS-6, the maiden flight of Shuttle Challenger, astronauts Story Musgrave and Don Peterson perform the first Space Shuttle spacewalk.

1990 – Retired Admiral John Poindexter is found guilty of five counts of lying to Congress and obstruction of justice for his actions in the Iran–Contra scandal, which are all later reversed on appeal.

1994 – In Rwanda, members of the Hutu tribe begin nation wide massacres of members of the Tutsi tribe.

1994 – Auburn Calloway attempts to destroy Federal Express Flight 705, a cargo DC-10 enroute from Memphis to San Jose, California, in order to allow his family to benefit from his life insurance policy. The crew manages to subdue him and at trial he is sentenced to consecutive life terms in prison for attempted murder and air piracy.

2001 – The Mars Odyssey robotic spacecraft is launched from Cape Canaveral to orbit Mars as a communications relay satellite for exploration craft on the surface.

2003 – During the invasion of Iraq, Baghdad falls to U.S. troops.


April 6

1250 – At Faraskur Egypt, the last major battle of the failed Seventh Crusade occurs, with moslem Ayyubids under  Ghayath al-Din Turanshah capturing King Louis IX of France for ransom.

1453 – The Ottoman emperor Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople  which falls on May 29.

1808 – In New York City, John Jacob Astor incorporates the American Fur Company, that would eventually make him America’s first millionaire.

1830 – The original church of the Latter Day Saint movement is organized by Joseph Smith and others in New York.

1841 –  2 days after having become President upon William Henry Harrison’s death,  John Tyler finally takes the oath of office.

1860 – The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, is organized by Joseph Smith III and others at Amboy, Illinois.

1865 – Around Sayler’s Creek near Farmville, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia fights and loses its last major battle while in retreat from Richmond, Virginia.

1888 – Thomas Green Clemson dies, bequeathing his estate to the State of South Carolina to establish Clemson Agricultural College.

1896 – In Athens, the opening of the first modern Olympic Games is celebrated, 1,500 years after the original games are banned by Roman emperor Theodosius I.

1909 – Robert Peary and Matthew Henson become the first people to reach the North Pole.

1917 – Agreeing to President Woodrow Wilson’s request, Congress declares war on Germany.

1926 – Varney Airlines, the progenitor of United Airlines, makes its first commercial flight with pilot Leon D. Cuddeback flying an airmail delivery from Pasco, Washington to Elko, Nevada

1929 – Huey P. Long, Governor of Louisiana, is impeached by the Louisiana House of Representatives.

1930 – Mahatma Gandhi finishes his Salt March to the west coast of India and makes untaxed salt from the water of the Arabian sea at Dandi, Gujarat.

1936 – Another tornado from the same storm system as the Tupelo tornado hits Gainesville, Georgia, killing 203 people.

1965 – Intelsat 1 Early Bird, the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

1968 – In Richmond, Indiana’s downtown district, a natural gas leak under the Marting Arms sporting goods store explodes, causing a secondary explosion of stored gunpowder, killing 41 people and injuring another 150.

1970 – In Valencia, California, 4 California Highway Patrol officers are killed in a shootout  with 2 heavily armed ‘career criminals’ after pulling them over for a previously reported crime. Both criminals escape from the 3 other officers arriving at the scene, but 1 later commits suicide while barricaded in house, while the other later surrenders and is sentenced to death, which is later reduced to life imprisonment. 39 years later, he commits suicide in his prison cell. As a result of this shootout, CHP completely revamps its weapons training program

1973 – The Pioneer 11 spacecraft is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida to explore the outer solar system, finally entering interstellar space in 1990.

1997 – In Greene County, Tennessee, a group of 6 young people carjack and kidnap the Lillelid family, murdering the parents and their 6 year old daughter, but only seriously wounding the 2 year old son. Later arrested in Arizona after being expelled from Mexico, the six are all sentenced at court in Tennessee to multiple life terms, with an additional 25 years in prison, after taking a plea bargain to take the death penalty off the table.

1998 – Travelers Group announces an agreement to merge with  between Citicorp, forming Citibank.

April 5

1566 – Two hundred Dutch noblemen, led by Hendrick van Brederode, force themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Spanish Inquisition in the Seventeen Provinces.

1614 – In Virginia, Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, marries English colonist John Rolfe.

1621 – The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, Massachusetts on a return trip to England.

1722 – On Easter Sunday, Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovers Easter Island. And now you know how it got its name.

1792 – President Washington exercises his authority to veto a bill, the first time this power is used.

1879 – Chile declares war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the 5 year long War of the Pacific.

1910 – The Transandine Railway connecting Chile and Argentina is inaugurated.

1915 – Boxing challenger Jess Willard knocks out Jack Johnson in Havana, Cuba to become the Heavyweight Champion of the World.

1922 – The American Birth Control League, forerunner of Planned Parenthood, is incorporated.

1933 – Assuming authority under the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the Emergency Banking Act in March 1933. President Roosevelt signs executive order 6102 “forbidding the Hoarding of Gold Coin, Gold Bullion, and Gold Certificates” by U.S. citizens.

1936 – An F5 power tornado kills 233 people in Tupelo, Mississippi.

1949 – A fire in St Anthony’s hospital in Effingham, Illinois, kills 77 people and leads to nationwide fire code improvements.

1951 – Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are sentenced to death for spying for the Soviet Union.

1977 – In the case of Rosebud Sioux Tribe v. Kneip, the Supreme Court rules that congressional legislation that diminished the size of the Sioux people’s reservation terminate the tribe’s jurisdictional authority over the area.

1986 – 2 of the 3 people killed  and 79 of the 229 injured in the bombing of the La Belle discotheque in West Berlin, Germany by Libyan government operatives are U.S. servicemembers

2010 – 29 miners are killed in an explosion at the Upper Big Branch Coal Mine in West Virginia.

But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Romans 5:8

Christus resurrexit! Vere resurrexit!

Christ is risen! Truly He is risen!

While most of the western churches use the Gregorian calendar to calculate the date, our Orthodox friends and some others use the Julian calendar, so this year they’ll celebrate on Sunday, the 2nd of May

The Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 28:

In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.
And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.
His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow:
And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.
And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified.
He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.
And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.
And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word.
And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him.
Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.
Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done.
And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,
Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.
And if this come to the governor’s ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.
So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.
Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.
And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.
And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen.