July 30

1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.

1619 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the first Colonial European representative assembly in the Americas, the Virginia General Assembly, convenes for the first time.

1676 – Nathaniel Bacon issues the “Declaration of the People of Virginia”, beginning Bacon’s Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.

1718 – William Penn, the founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, dies at his home in Ruscombe, England.

1729 – Founding of Baltimore, Maryland.

1863 – Representatives of the United States and tribal leaders including Shoshone Chief Pocatello sign the Treaty of Box Elder, compensating the tribe for their land claim at a rate of about 50¢ per acre.

1864 – Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.

1865 – The steamboat Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers.

1871 – The steam boiler of the Staten Island Ferry Westfield explodes, killing  85 people.

1881 – Marine General Smedley Butler, the last servicemember to be twice awarded the Medal of Honor is born in West Chester, Pennsylvania.

1945 – On the way to the Phillipines after delivering the components for the Little Boy nuclear bomb, the USS Indianapolis is torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-58, killing 883 seamen. Most die during the following four days, until an aircraft notices the survivors.

1956 – A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God We Trust as the U.S. national motto.

1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act  into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.

1971 – The Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon, piloted by David Scott and James Irwin land on the Moon near Hadley Rille with the first Lunar Rover for a 3 day visit.

1974 – President Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.

1975 – Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, never to be seen again.

2020 – NASA’s Mars 2020 mission is launched on an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral with the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter aboard.

July 28

1854 – The USS Constellation, the last all sail warship built by the United States Navy and now a museum ship in Baltimore Harbor, is commissioned.

1864 – At the Battle of Ezra Church, Confederate troops make a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia.

1868 – The 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is certified, establishing African American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law.

1896 – The city of Miami, Florida is incorporated.

1932 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the Army to forcibly evict the “Bonus Army” of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.

1935 – First flight of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

1938 – Pan American Airlines Hawaii Clipper disappears between Guam and Manila. The first loss of an airliner in trans-Pacific China Clipper service.

1945 – A U.S. Army B-25 bomber crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 and injuring 26.

1965 – President Johnson orders an increase of the number of troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.

1984 – The summer Games of the XXIII Olympiad open in Los Angeles.


July 27

1663 – The English Parliament passes the second Navigation Act requiring that all goods bound for the American colonies have to be sent in English ships from English ports.

1775 – The Second Continental Congress passes legislation establishing “an hospital for an army consisting of 20,000 men.”, founding the U.S. Army Medical Department.

1778 – During the Revolutionary War, the British and American ally French fleets fight to a standoff west of the isle of Ushant, at the mouth of the English Channel.

1789 – President Washington signs the legislation establishing The  Department of Foreign Affairs, later to be renamed The Department of State.

1794–French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre is placed under arrest to await trial by the Revolutionary Tribunal the next day.

1816 – During the Seminole Wars, US Navy Gunboat No. 154 ends the siege of Negro Fort when its cannon fire explodes the fort’s powder magazine

1919 – The Chicago Race Riot erupts after a racial incident occurred on a South Side beach, leading to 38 fatalities and 537 injuries over 5 days.

1921 – At the University of Toronto, biochemist Frederick Banting proves that the hormone insulin regulates blood sugar.

1929 – The Geneva Convention of 1929, dealing with treatment of prisoners of war, is signed by 53 nations.

1940 – The animated short A Wild Hare is released, introducing the character of Bugs Bunny.

1949 – The de Havilland Comet, the first jet-powered airliner, flies for the first time.

1953 – A cessation of hostilities is achieved in the Korean War when the United States, China, and North Korea sign an armistice agreement.

1964 – 5,000 American military advisers are sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.

1974 – The House Judiciary Committee votes 27 to 11 to recommend the first article of impeachment against President Richard Nixon.

1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C..

1996 – In Atlanta, a pipe bomb explodes at Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics.

2005 – After an incident during STS-114, launching Shuttle Discovery, NASA grounds the Space Shuttle fleet, pending an investigation of the continuing problem with the shedding of foam insulation from the external fuel tank.


July 26

920 – The armies of the alliance of Navarre and Léon lose in battle against the moslem army of the Emir of Córdoba at Valdejunquera.

1139 – One day after defeating the moslem army of Ali ibn Yusuf, Prince Afonso Henriques is proclaimed Afonso o Conquistador, King of Portugal.

1775 – Benjamin Franklin takes office as Postmaster General as the United States Post Office is established by the Second Continental Congress.

1788 – New York ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States.

1861 – General George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.

1863 – At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry under the command of General John Hunt Morgan are captured by Union forces.

1908 – Attorney General Charles Bonaparte issues an order to immediately staff the Office of the Chief Examiner, later to be renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

1941 – In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, the United States, Britain and the Netherlands freeze all Japanese assets and cut off oil shipments.

1945 – The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany. The USS Indianapolis arrives at Tinian with components and enriched uranium for the Little Boy nuclear bomb.

1947 – President Truman signs the National Security Act of 1947 into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, United States Department of Defense, United States Air Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the United States National Security Council.

1948 – President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, desegregating the military of the United States.

1953 – Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, starting the Cuban Revolution.

1963 – Syncom 2 is launched from Cape Canaveral to become the world’s first geosynchronous satellite.

1971 – Apollo 15 launches with the first Lunar Roving Vehicle.

1990 – The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is signed into law by President Bush.

2005 – Shuttle Discovery is launched on mission STS-114 as the first flight after the Columbia Disaster in 2003.


July 25

306 – Constantine I is proclaimed Roman emperor by his troops.

315 – The Arch of Constantine is completed near the Colosseum in Rome to commemorate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge.

1139 – The Almoravid moslems led by Ali ibn Yusuf, are defeated by Prince Afonso Henriques, at Ourique in Alentejo, Portugal

1603 – King James VI of Scotland is crowned King James 1 of England

1722 – The ‘Dummer’s War’ between colonists and Abenaki tribes begins along the Maine-Massachusetts border.

1759 – During the French and Indian War, British forces capture Fort Niagara from the French, who subsequently abandon nearby Fort Rouillé to the north.

1783 – The Revolutionary War’s last action, the Siege of Cuddalore, is ended by a preliminary peace agreement.

1861 – Congress passes the Crittenden–Johnson Resolution, stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

1866 – Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of The Army, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to be promoted to this rank.

1868 – The Wyoming Territory is established.

1898 – In the Puerto Rican Campaign of the Spanish American War, the U.S Army lands and secures the port at Guánica.

1909 – Louis Blériot makes the first flight across the English Channel in a heavier than air machine

1956 – 45 miles south of Nantucket Island, the Italian ocean liner SS Andrea Doria collides with the MS Stockholm in heavy fog and sinks the next day, killing 51 passengers.

1961 – President Kennedy states that any attack on Berlin will be considered an attack on NATO.

1969 – During the Vietnam War, President Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine, stating that the U.S. now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense starting the “Vietnamization” of the war.

1993 – Members of the terrorist Azanian People’s Liberation Army attack the Saint James Church in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa killing 11 members of the congregation and wounding another 58 before a member, Charl van Wyk, returns fire, immediately stopping the terrorists and driving them off.

1994 – Israel and Jordan sign the Washington Declaration, formally ending the state of war between the two nations.

2000 – Concorde Air France Flight 4590 crashes at Paris’ Charles de Gaulle airport on take-off, killing all 109 passengers and crew aboard and 4 people on the ground.

2010 – WikiLeaks publishes classified documents about the War in Afghanistan, one of the largest leaks in U.S. military history.

July 24

1148 – An army under Louis VII of France lays siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade.

1567 – Mary, Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate and is replaced by her 1-year-old son James VI, later also James I of England

1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founds the trading post at Fort Pontchartrain, which later becomes the city of Detroit.

1783 – Simón Bolívar is born in Caracas, Venezuela.

1847 – Brigham Young leads 148 Mormon pioneers into the Salt Lake Valley.

1864 – Confederate troops led by General Jubal Early defeat Union troops led by General George Crook, in the 2nd Battle of Kernstown Virginia

1866 – Tennessee becomes the first U.S. state to be readmitted to the Union under Reconstruction

1911 – Hiram Bingham III discovers Machu Picchu

1922 – The British Mandate of Palestine is formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations

1929 – The Kellogg–Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (really effective wasn’t it?)

1950 – Cape Canaveral Air Force Station begins operations with the launch of a Bumper rocket.

1969 – Apollo 11 and crew returns to Earth, safely splashing down in the Pacific Ocean.

1974 – The Supreme Court rules that President Nixon does not have the authority to withhold subpoenaed White House tapes and orders them surrendered to the Watergate special prosecutor.

1987 – The US flagged supertanker SS Bridgeton collides with mines off Farsi island in the Persian Gulf laid by IRGC causing a moderate damage to the hull of the tanker.

1998 – Russell Eugene Weston Jr. opens fire in the United States Capitol killing two police officers.

July 23

1319 – A Knights Hospitaller fleet scores a victory over a moslem Aydinid emirate fleet off the Greek island of Chios

1892 – Tafari Makonnen Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is born in Ejersa Goro, Ethiopia

1914 – Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia, demanding they allow Austrians investigate the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand…..or else.

1926 – Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.

1952 – General Muhammad Naguib leads the Free Officers Movement, formed by Gamal Abdel Nasser in overthrowing King Farouk of Egypt.

1962 – Jackie Robinson becomes the first black man to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

1968 – In Cleveland, Ohio, a violent shootout between the Black Nationalists of New Libya group and the Cleveland Police Department occurs, killing 3 people on each side and wounding over a dozen.

1982 – Outside Santa Clarita, California, actor Vic Morrow and two children are killed when a helicopter crashes onto them while shooting a scene from Twilight Zone: The Movie.

1995 – Comet Hale–Bopp is discovered; it becomes visible to the naked eye on Earth nearly a year later.

1999 – Shuttle Columbia launches on STS-93, with Eileen Collins becoming the first female space shuttle commander.

2012 – Sally Ride, the first American woman in space dies of pancreatic cancer at her home in La Jolla, California.

July 22

1099 – Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulcher of The Kingdom of Jerusalem during the First Crusade

1456 – John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire during the moslem siege of Belgrade.

1587 – A second group of English settlers arrives on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.

1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.

1864 – Outside Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman situated on Bald Hill.

1933 – Aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City, completing the first solo flight around the world.

1934 – Gangster John Dillinger is shot and killed by FBI agents trying to escape after exiting the Biograph Theater in Chicago

1937 – The  Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.

1943 – Allied forces capture Palermo during the Allied invasion of Sicily.

1946 – The Israeli  Irgun militia bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of British civil and military administration for Mandatory Palestine.

1992 – Fearing extradition to the U.S., Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his prison near Medellín.

2003 – Troops of the U.S 101st Airborne Division and 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta, attack a compound in Mosul Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay

July 21

356 BC – The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is destroyed by arson.

1861 – First Battle of Bull Run: At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the Civil War ends in a victory for the Confederate army.

1865 – In the town square of Springfield, Missouri, ‘Wild Bill’ Hickok and Davis Tutt engage in what is regarded as the first western showdown gun fight with Hickok killing Tutt with a single shot.

1873 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James–Younger Gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the U.S.

1925 – In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in his school class and fined $100.

1944 – American troops land on Guam, starting a battle that will end on August 10. In Berlin, five conspirators are executed for the plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.

1949 – The Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty, creating NATO.

1954 – The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

1961 – Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission astronaut Gus Grissom, piloting Liberty Bell 7 becomes the second American to go into space

1969 – At 02:56 UTC, at Tranquility Base, astronaut Neil Armstrong leaves the Lunar Lander Eagle and becomes the first person to walk on the Moon. At 17:54 UTC, the Eagle lifts off from the Moon to redock with the Command Module Columbia at 21:35 UTC

1979 – Jay Silverheels becomes the first Native American to have a star commemorated in the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1983 – The world’s lowest temperature in an inhabited location is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −128.6 °F, (−89.2 °C)

2011 – NASA’s Space Shuttle program ends with the landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-135.

July 20

356BC – Alexander the Great is born in Pella, Macedon.

70 – Titus’ Roman army storms the Fortress Antonia north of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

1189 – Richard the Lionheart of England is officially invested as Duke of Normandy.

1810 – Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia) declare independence from Spain.

1831 – The Seneca and Shawnee tribes agree to cede land in western Ohio for 60,000 acres west of the Mississippi River.

1864 – Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman at Peach Tree Hill near Atlanta

1903 – The Ford Motor Company ships its first automobile.

1923 –José ‘Pancho Villa’ Arámbula, is killed by a group of 7 assassins in Parral, Chihuahua, Mexico

1944 – Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.

1960 – The Polaris submarine launched ballistic missile – SLBM – is successfully launched from the USS George Washington

1969 – Apollo 11’s Lunar Module, Eagle,  piloted by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin makes the first manned landing on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility.

1976 – The Viking 1 probe successfully lands on Mars.

1993 – Vince Foster reportedly commits suicide in Fort Marcy Park, Fairfax County Virginia

1997 – The Navy celebrates the 200th birthday of the fully restored USS Constitution by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.

2012 – James Holmes, later sentenced to 12 consecutive life terms plus 3318 years without parole, opens opens fire at a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, killing 12 people and injuring 70 others.

2013 – Seventeen government soldiers are killed in an attack by FARC revolutionaries in the Colombian department of Arauca.

Name of biblical judge found inscribed on 3,100-year-old jug found in Israel

A rare 3,100-year-old inked inscription from the era of the Book of Judges is displayed on Monday by the Israel Antiquities Authority at the excavation site at Khirbat a Rai. Photo by Debbie Hill/UPI

Archaeologists have uncovered a small jug with a rare five-letter inscription, linking the 3,100-year-old ceramic artifact to a biblical judge mentioned in the Book of Judges.

The jug and ancient inscription — the first to feature the name ‘Jerubbaal’ — were found at a dig site in the Shahariya Forest, among Israel’s Judean Foothills, archeologists reported the discovery Monday in the Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology.

“The name of the Judge Gideon ben Yoash was Jerubbaal, but we cannot tell whether he owned the vessel on which the inscription is written in ink,” archaeologists said in a press release.

The inscribed jug, bearing the name Jerubbaal, was recovered from a subsurface storage pit lined with stones. Researchers suspect the small jug likely held a precious liquid, such as oil, perfume or medicine.

Though the jug features only five inscribed letters, close analysis suggests the original inscription was longer.

In the Book of Judges, Jerubbaal is first mentioned as a leading opponent of idolatry.

He’s also credited with leading a successful battle against the Midianites.

“According to the Bible, Gideon organized a small army of 300 soldiers and attacked the Midianites by night near Ma’ayan Harod,” said Yossef Garfinkel and Sa’ar Ganor, lead archaeologists on the project and professors at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

“In view of the geographical distance between the Shephelah and the Jezreel Valley, this inscription may refer to another Jerubbaal and not the Gideon of biblical tradition, although the possibility cannot be ruled out that the jug belonged to the judge Gideon,” Garfinkel and Ganor said.

“In any event, the name Jerubbaal was evidently in common usage at the time of the biblical Judges,” they said.

Because the jug and its inscription date to roughly 1,100 B.C., the time of biblical judges, archaeologists suggest the discovery offers proof of the historical accuracy of the Bible.

“As we know, there is considerable debate as to whether biblical tradition reflects reality and whether it is faithful to historical memories from the days of the Judges and the days of David,” according to Garfinkel and Ganor.

“The name Jerubbaal only appears in the Bible in the period of the Judges, yet now it has also been discovered in an archaeological context, in a stratum dating from this period,” Garfinkel and Ganor said.

“In a similar manner, the name Ishbaal, which is only mentioned in the Bible during the monarchy of King David, has been found in strata dated to that period at the site of Khirbat Qeiyafa,” the archaeologists said.

Identical names being mentioned in the Bible, which have been found in other previously recovered inscriptions, they said, ” shows that memories were preserved and passed down through the generations.”

July 19

64 – The Great Fire of Rome rages on for six days, destroying half of the city

711 – Umayyad moslem forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic at Guadalete in Spain.

939 – King Ramiro II of León defeats a moslem army under Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III near Simancas in Spain

1701 – Under terms of the Nanfan Treaty, the Iroquois Confederacy cedes territory north of the Ohio River to England.

1845 – The Great New York City Fire destroys 345 buildings and results in the death of 4 firefighters and 26 citizens

1870 – France declares war on Prussia.

1963 – Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 for the first time to an altitude of 347,800 feet exceeding an altitude of 100 km, qualifying as spaceflight.

1969 – Senator Ted Kennedy crashes his car into a tidal pond at Chappaquiddick Island, Massachusetts, killing his passenger Mary Jo Kopechne.

1977 – The world’s first Global Positioning System is transmitted from an orbiting satellite.

1979 – The Sandinista rebels overthrow the Somoza government of Nicaragua.

1989 – United Airlines Flight 232, A Douglas DC-10 crashes in Sioux City, Iowa killing 112 of the 286 passengers and crew aboard.

July 18

452 – After an earlier defeat on the Catalaunian Plains in modern France, Attila The Hun lays siege to the metropolis of Aquileia in Italy and eventually destroys it.

1195 – Almohad moslem forces defeat the Castilian army of Alfonso VIII at Alarcos and force its retreat to Toledo.

1863 – The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry attempts an unsuccessful assault on Confederate held Battery Wagner, south of Charleston harbor.

1914 –  Congress forms the Aviation Section, Signal Corps, U.S. Army

1925 – Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf

1942 – The Germans test fly the jet fighter Messerschmitt Me 262  under power for the first time.

1966 – Gemini 10 is launched from Cape Kennedy

1968 – Intel Corporation is founded in Mountain View, California

1976 – Nadia Comăneci becomes the first person in Olympic Games history to score a perfect 10 in gymnastics at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

2013 – The Government of the City of Detroit files for municipal bankruptcy

July 17

180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium (near Kasserine, modern-day Tunisia) in North Africa are executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.

1203 – The Army of the Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople

1821 – The Kingdom of Spain cedes the territory of Florida to the U.S.

1867 – Harvard School of Dental Medicine is established in Boston, Massachusetts.

1881 – Mountain man, trapper, Army scout, and wilderness guide Jim Bridger dies at his home near Kansas City.

1918 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his immediate family and retainers are murdered by Bolsheviks

1936 – An Armed Forces rebellion against the recently elected leftist Popular Front government of Spain starts the Spanish Civil War

1938 – Douglas Corrigan takes off from Brooklyn to fly the “wrong way” to Ireland and becomes known as “Wrong Way” Corrigan.

1944 – During World War II, at Port Chicago, California, the San Francisco Bay, the Liberty ship SS E. A. Bryana explodes while being loaded with ammunition, killing 320 people and injuring 390.

1945 – The main three leaders of the Allied nations, Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin, meet in the German city of Potsdam.

1953 –  A Marine Corps Fairchild Packet transport aircraft crashes on takeoff from Naval Air Station Whiting Field, Florida, causing the largest number of United States Midshipman casualties in a single event, killing 38 of the 40 aboard and 5 of the 6 crew.

1955 – Disneyland is opened by Walt Disney in Anaheim, California.

1975 – An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft dock with each other in orbit marking the first such link-up between spacecraft from the two nations.

1996 – TWA Flight 800, a Boeing 747-100, crashes 12 minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport

2014 – Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 is shot down while flying over eastern Ukraine.

July 16

1054 – Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing a Papal Bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during divine liturgy. This is generally considered as the start of the East–West (Roman Catholic- Orthodox Catholic) Schism.

1661 – The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.

1769 – FR Junípero Serra founds California’s first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá.

1779 – The Continental Army seizes a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point.
What Is The Spirit Of The Bayonet? To KILL!!

1790 – The Residence Act establishes the District of Columbia as the capital of the U.S.

1809 – The city of La Paz declares its independence from the Spanish Crown

1861 – Union troops begin a march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run.

1862 – David Farragut is promoted to Rear Admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank.

1886 – Edward Judson Sr.,  more well-known by his pseudonym Ned Buntline, dies at his home in Stamford, New York,

1931 – Emperor Haile Selassie signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.

1941 – Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game

1945 – The U.S. Army’s G Division successfully detonates the ‘Gadget’, a plutonium nuclear device, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
The cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco, bound for Tinian Island, with parts for the uranium nuclear weapon ‘Little Boy’.

1948 – The city of Nazareth capitulates to Israeli troops during the Arab–Israeli War.

1950 – During the battle of Taejon, American POWs are murdered by the North Korean Army.

1969 – Apollo 11 is launched from the Kennedy Space Center

1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, die when the aircraft he was piloting crashes off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard.

2015 – Four U.S. Marines die in an attack by a moslem terrorist targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.


July 15

70 – The army of Roman general – and later emperor – Titus breaches the walls of Jerusalem.

1099 – Christian soldiers of the First Crusade take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a final assault.

1149 – The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.

1741 – Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.

1799 – The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre François Bouchard

1806 – Lt Zebulon Pike begins an expedition of the west from Fort Bellefontaine , Missouri

1862 – On the Mississippi river, the Confederate ironclad Arkansas, under the command of Captain Isaac N. Brown engages the Union flotilla of the Carondelet, Tyler, and Queen of the West, commanded by Admiral David Farragut. All ships sustain heavy damage but the Arkansas breaks through to Vicksburg

1870 – Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union under Reconstruction.

1910 – In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer’s disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products, later renamed Boeing.

1918 – The Second Battle of the Marne during World War I begins with a German attack.

1948 – General of The Armies, John J. ‘Black Jack’ Pershing, dies at Walter Reed General Hospital in Washington, D.C.

1975 – The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet/United States human crewed flight.

2002 – “American Taliban” John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

2006 – Twitter is launched.

2016 – Steven Fjestad, author of multiple editions of the Blue Book of Gun Values dies of a  short illness at his home in Minnesota.

July 14

1789 – The citizens of Paris storm the Bastille.

1798 – The Sedition Act becomes law in the United States making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government. Less than 3 years later, it expires.

1874 – The Chicago Fire of 1874 burns down 47 acres of the city

1881 – Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner.

1900 – Armies of the Eight Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.

1911 – Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright brothers, lands an airplane on the South Lawn of the White House.

1933 – In Germany, all political parties are outlawed except the Nazi Party.
The Nazi eugenics program begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring that calls for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders.

1943 – In Diamond, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African American.

1950 – North Korean troops initiate the Battle of Taejon.

1965 – The Mariner 4 probe takes the first close up photos of another planet durin its flyby of Mars.

2015 – NASA’s New Horizons probe performs the first flyby of Pluto, completing the first survey of the Solar System.

2016 – A moslem terrorist vehicular attack in Nice, France kills 86 civilians and injures over 400 others.

July 13

587 BC – Babylon’s siege of Jerusalem ends following the destruction of Solomon’s Temple.

1787 – The Continental Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance establishing governing rules for the Northwest Territory.

1863 – In New York City, opponents of conscription begin 3 days of rioting

1973 – Alexander Butterfield reveals the existence of a secret Oval Office taping system to the Senate Watergate Committee

1977 – New York City experiences an electrical blackout lasting nearly 24 hours

2008 – The Battle of Wanat begins when Taliban and al-Qaeda guerrillas attack US Army and Afghan National Army troops in Afghanistan. SSG Ryan Pitts is later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle.


July 12

70 – The armies of Titus begin the attack on the walls of Jerusalem after a six-month siege

1191 – Saladin’s garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the 2 year long siege of Acre during the 3rd Crusade

1804 – Alexander Hamilton dies the day after being shot by Aaron Burr in a duel.

1812 – The American Army of the Northwest briefly occupies the Upper Canadian settlement at what is now at Windsor, Ontario.

1862 – The Medal of Honor is authorized by Congress.

1973 – A fire destroys the entire 6th floor of the National Personnel Records Center of the United States in St Louis.

July 11

1796 – The U. S. takes possession of Detroit from Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.

1798 – The United States Marine Corps is re-established after being disbanded after the Revolutionary War.

1804 – Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounds Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel with pistols.

1864 – Battle of Fort Stevens; Confederate forces attempt to invade Washington D.C.

1895 – Brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière demonstrate motion picture technology

1914 – Babe Ruth makes his debut in Major League Baseball.

1921 – Former President William Taft is sworn in as the 10th Chief Justice of the U.S.

1979 – America’s first space station, Skylab, is destroyed as it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.