October 29

1792 – Mount Hood, Oregon is named after Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton on sighting the mountain.

1863 – Eighteen countries meet in Geneva and agree to form the International Red Cross.

1922 – King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy appoints Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister.

1969 – The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet.

1972 – The three surviving perpetrators of the Munich Olympic massacre are released from prison in exchange for the hostages of hijacked Lufthansa Flight 615.

1980 – The demonstration flight of a secretly modified C-130 for an Iran hostage crisis rescue attempt ends in crash landing at Eglin Air Force Base’s Duke Field, Florida leading to cancellation of Operation Credible Sport.

1998 – Space Shuttle mission STS-95 blasts off with 77-year-old John Glenn on board Shuttle Discovery, making him the oldest person to go into space and the only Mission Mercury astronaut to fly on a Shuttle.

Births
1891 – Fanny Brice
1899 – Akim Tamiroff
1940 – Connie Mack III
1942 – Bob Ross
1947 – Richard Dreyfuss
1948 – Kate Jackson
1971 – Winona Ryder

Deaths
1618 – Sir Walter Raleigh
1877 – Nathan Bedford Forrest
1901 – Leon Czolgosz
1911 – Joseph Pulitzer
1957 – Louis B. Mayer
1963 – Adolphe Menjou
1971 – Duane Allman

October 28

312 – Just before Constantine defeats Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge over the river Tiber to become the sole Roman emperor in the west, he sees a vision in the sky -a cross  – and the words Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα “In this (the sign of the cross, you shall) conquer“.

969 – The Byzantine Empire retakes the city of Antioch from Hamdanid Arabs

1344 – The army of the first Smyrniote crusade retakes the lower town of Smyrna from Aydınid Turks.

1492 – Christopher Columbus lands in Cuba on his first voyage to the New World.

1636 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony votes to establish a theological college, later, Harvard University.

1776 – Following General Washington’s retreat from New York, British troops attack and capture Chatterton Hill at White Plains, New York from the Continental Army.

1886 – President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.

1919 – Under authority of the 18th amendment, Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Wilson’s veto with Prohibition to begin the following January.

1922 – Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.

1942 – The Alaska Highway reaches and connects Alaska to the North American railway network at Dawson Creek in Canada.

1948 – Paul Hermann Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.

1962 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba.

Births
1793 – Eliphalet Remington
1837 – Tokugawa Yoshinobu
1897 – Edith Head, Hans Speidel
1902 – Elsa Lanchester
1914 – Jonas Salk
1917 – Jack Soo
1926 – Bowie Kuhn
1945 – Sandy Berger
1951 – Peter Hitchens
1955 – Bill Gates
1962 – Daphne Zuniga
1966 – Matt Drudge
1967 – Julia Roberts
1974 – Joaquin Phoenix

Deaths
312 – Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
1704 – John Locke
1800 – Artemas Ward
1818 – Abigail Adams
1983 – Otto Messmer, American animator and screenwriter (b. 1892)
2004 – Col Eugene K. Bird USA
2006 – Red Auerbach, Trevor Berbick
2007 – Porter Wagoner
2010 – James MacArthur

October 27

939 – Æthelstan, the first king of all England, dies

1553 – Michael Servetus is burned at the stake for heresy at Geneva

1682 – Philadelphia is founded in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

1775 – King George III declares a Proclamation of Rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies at Parliament.

1795 – The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the states

1810 – The United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida.

1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be killed.

1904 – The first underground New York City Subway line opens, later designated as the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line.

1962 – Major Rudolf Anderson of the U. S. Air Force becomes the only direct  casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 airplane is shot down over Cuba

1964 – Ronald Reagan launches his political career by delivering a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater.

2004 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals to win their first World Series in 86 years.

2018 – A gunman opens fire on a Pittsburgh synagogue killing 11 and wounding 6

Births
1782 – Niccolò Paganini
1806 – Juan Seguín
1811 – Isaac Singer
1858 – Theodore Roosevelt
1914 – Dylan Thomas
1920 – Nanette Fabray
1939 – John Cleese
1942 – Lee Greenwood
1943 – Carmen Argenziano
1963 – Marla Maples

Deaths
1990 – Xavier Cugat
1992 – RM3 Allen R. Schindler, Jr. USN
2018 – Joyce Fienberg, Richard Gottfried, Rose Mallinger, Jerry Rabinowitz, Cecil & David Rosenthal, Bernice, & Sylvan Simon, Daniel Stein, Melvin Wax, Irving Younger
2019 – Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

October 26

1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia.

1825 – The Erie Canal opens, allowing direct passage from the Hudson River to Lake Erie.

1936 – The first electric generator at Hoover Dam goes into full operation.

1944 – Off Cape Engaño north of Luzon Island Philippines, the final battle between Japanese and U.S. naval fleets results in an overwhelming American victory.

1958 – Pan American Airways makes the first commercial flight of the Boeing 707 from New York City to Paris.

1967 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi crowns himself Emperor of Iran.

1995 – Israeli Mossad agents kill Islamic Jihad leader Fathi Shaqaqi in Malta.

2001 – The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law.

Births
1529 – Anna of Hesse
1609 – William Sprague
1854 – C. W. Post
1860 – Frank ‘Pistol Pete’ Eaton
1865 – Benjamin Guggenheim
1869 – Washington Luís
1912 – Don Siegel
1914 – Jackie Coogan
1916 – François Mitterrand
1919 – Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
1942 – Bob Hoskins
1945 – Pat Conroy, Jaclyn Smith
1946 – Pat Sajak
1962 – Cary Elwes

Deaths
1675 – William Sprague
1864 – William ‘Bloody Bill’ Anderson
1866 – John Kinder Labatt
1931 – Charles Comiskey
1972 – Igor Sikorsky
1979 – Park Chung Hee
1999 – Hoyt Axton

October 25

285 – Saints Crispin and Crispinian are martyred by Governor Rictus Varus of Gaul on order of Emperor Diocletian

1147 – During the Iberian Reconquista, crusader knights retake Lisbon after a 4 month long siege.

1415 – The army of Henry V of England, light armored infantry and archers, defeats the heavily armored French cavalry in the Battle of Agincourt.

1760 – George III succeeds to the British throne on the death of his grandfather.

1812 – The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian commanded by John Surman Carden, south of the Azores islands.

1854 – At Balaklava in the Crimea, after an ineffective cavalry charge of the British Heavy Brigade, the British Light Brigade is ordered to charge but is pointed in the wrong direction, suffering heavy casualties after heading down a valley defended by massed Russian artillery.

1940 – Benjamin O. Davis Sr. is promoted the first African American General  Officer in the U.S. Army.

1944 – The main force of the U.S. Navy sights and re-engages the main force of the Japanese Navy in the Surigao Straight and off Samar Island in the Phillipines

1962 – U.S Ambassador Adlai Stevenson shows the United Nations Security Council reconnaissance photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba.

1983 – United States and Caribbean coalition forces begin Operation Urgent Fury, the invasion of the island of Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d’état by Cuban backed forces.

Births
1838 – Georges Bizet
1864 – John Francis Dodge
1881 – Pablo Picasso
1888 – Richard E. Byrd
1909 – Whit Bissell
1912 – Sarah ‘Minnie Pearl’ Cannon
1924 – Billy Barty
1928 – Anthony Franciosa, Marion Ross
1944 – James Carville

Deaths
1400 – Geoffrey Chaucer
1760 – George II of Great Britain
1806 – Gen Henry Knox USA
1916 – William Merritt Chase
1921 – Bartholemew ‘Bat’ Masterson
1992 – Roger Miller
1993 – Vincent Price
1994 – Lt Kara Hultgreen USN
1995 – Viveca Lindfors, Bobby Riggs
1999 – Payne Stewart
2002 – Richard Harris, Paul Wellstone
2013 – Hal Needham

October 24

1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel.

1929 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average on the New York Stock Exchange crashes  12.82% (38.33 points) marking the beginning of a world wide economic crisis.

1930 – A coup d’état in Brazil ousts President Washington Luis, ending the First Republic

1931 – The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic over the Hudson River.

1944 – Off Leyte Gulf, the Japanese naval force attacked earlier by U.S. submarines is engaged and repulsed by U.S. naval surface forces in the Sibuyan Sea

1945 – The United Nations Charter comes into effect.

1954 – President Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam.

1992 – The Toronto Blue Jays become the first Major League Baseball team based outside the United States to win the World Series.

2002 – Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, D.C.

2008 – Many of the world’s stock exchanges experience the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices while the Dow Jones Industrial Average on the New York Stock Exchange drops 3.6%. (312 points)

Births
1838 – Annie Edson Taylor
1894 – Bibhutibhushan Mukhopadhyay
1903 – Melvin Purvis
1919 – Frank Piasecki
1939 – F. Murray Abraham

Deaths
1601 – Tycho Brahe
1821 – Elias Boudinot
1824 – Israel Bissell
1852 – Daniel Webster
1935 – Dutch Schultz
1944 – Louis Renault
1945 – Vidkun Quisling
1972 – Jackie Robinson
1994 – Raul Julia
2005 – Rosa Parks
2015 – Maureen O’Hara
2017 – Antoine ‘Fats’ Domino
2017 – Robert Guillaume

October 23

4004 BC – Irish Archbishop James Ussher’s creation date of the world according to the Bible, proposed in 1650.

1942 – On Guadalcanal, Japanese forces begin what will turn out to be their last major offensive action to retake Henderson Field

1944 – In Leyte Gulf of the Philippines, the U.S. submarines USS Darter and USS Dace sight and attack a large Japanese naval force as it passes Palawan island to attack the U.S. landings on Leyte island.

1973 – President Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations.

1982 – In Miracle Valley Arizona, a gunfight breaks out in the early morning between members of Christ Miracle Healing Church and Cochise County Deputy Sheriffs who had arrived the previous evening to arrest several church members, leaving 2 church members dead and many on both sides wounded.

1983 – In Beirut Lebanon, the building used as barracks by U.S. Marines is hit by a truck bomb, killing 241. A French army barracks in Lebanon is also hit that same morning, killing 58.

Births
1491 – Ignatius of Loyola
1918 – James Daly
1925 – Johnny Carson
1935 – Chi-Chi Rodríguez
1940 – Edson ‘Pelé’ Nascimento
1959 – Alfred ‘Weird Al’ Yankovic

Deaths
42 BC – Marcus Junius Brutus
1939 – Zane Grey
1950 – Al Jolson
1978 – Maybelle Carter
1982 – William Thomas Jr., Aruguster Tate
1983 – Jessica Savitch
1984 – Oskar Werner
1994 – Robert Lansing

October 22

451 – The Chalcedonian Creed, that defines that Christ is acknowledged in two natures, truly God and truly Man, which come together into one person and one hypostasis, is adopted by the ecumenical council of Chalcedon.

1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.

1962 – President Kennedy announces to the public that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval quarantine of the island.

Births
1811 – Franz Liszt
1844 – Sarah Bernhardt
1917 – Joan Fontaine
1938 – Christopher Lloyd
1942 – Annette Funicello
1943 – Catherine Deneuve
1947 – Haley Barbour
1952 – Jeff Goldblum

Deaths
1906 – Paul Cézanne
1934 – Charles ‘Pretty Boy’ Floyd
1973 – Pablo Casals
1992 – Cleavon Little
2002 – Richard Helms
2006 – Arthur Hill
2009 – Soupy Sales
2015 – MSG Joshua Wheeler USA

October 21

1096 – The Seljuk Turks defeat in detail the ‘People’s Army’ of the First Crusade at Helenopolis in Bythnia.

1097 – The ‘Princes Army’ of the First Crusade, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemund of Taranto, and Raymond IV of Toulouse, begin the Siege of Antioch.

1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.

1520 – During is voyage of circumnavigation, Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait near the lower end of South America now named after him

1600 – Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of all rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara and becomes Shōgun of Japan.

1774 – The flag of Taunton, Massachusetts is the first to include the word “Liberty”.

1797 – The 44 gun U. S. Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.

1805 – A British fleet under by Admiral Horatio, Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Pierre Villeneuve in the Battle of Trafalgar.

1854 – Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.

1861 – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops at Ball’s Bluff Virginia in the second major battle of the war.

1867 – The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders requiring them to relocate to reservations in western Oklahoma.

1879 – Thomas Edison applies for a patent for his design for an incandescent light bulb.

1944 – During the Allied invasion of the Phillipines at Leyte, the first kamikaze attack damages HMAS Australia.
The city of Aachen-Aix-la-Chapelle-site of Charlemagne’s Court falls to American forces after three weeks of fighting, the first German city to fall to the Allies during World War II

1959 – President Eisenhower approves the transfer of all US Army space-related activities to NASA

Births
1833 – Alfred Nobel
1928 – Whitey Ford
1929 – Ursula K. Le Guin
1952 – Patti Davis
1956 – Carrie Fisher
1959 – Ken Watanabe

Deaths
1805 – Cpt John Cooke, Cpt George Duff, Adm Horatio Lord Nelson
1969 – Jack Kerouac
1984 – François Truffaut
2012 – George McGovern
2013 – Major Owens
2014 – Ben Bradlee, Nelson Bunker Hunt
2015 – Marty Ingels

October 20

1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.

1818 – The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.

1941 – Thousands of civilians in German-occupied Serbia are murdered by Nazi soldiers in the Kragujevac massacre.

1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry

1973 –  President Nixon fires Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.

Births
1882 – Bela Lugosi
1925 – Art Buchwald
1946 – Lewis Grizzard
1958 – Viggo Mortensen

Deaths
1864 – BG Stephen Dodson Ramseur CSA
1983 – Merle Travis
1989 – Anthony Quayle
1990 – Joel McCrea
1994 – Burt Lancaster
2003 – Jack Elam
2006 – Jane Wyatt
2011 – Muammar Gaddafi

October 19

202 BC – At the Battle of Zama, Roman legions under Scipio Africanus defeat Hannibal Barca, leader of the army defending Carthage.

439 – The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, take Carthage in North Africa. (bad day for Carthaginians)

1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella I of Castile, a marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into a single country, Spain. (and 23 years later at the completion of the Reconquista, permit the Spanish crown to fund the first voyage of Columbus)

1512 – Martin Luther receives his doctorate of theology at the University of Wittenberg

1789 – John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

1864 – While Confederate forces under Lt. Gen. Jubal Early are preliminarily successful in a surprise attack against Union forces under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan at Cedar Creek near Strasburg, Virginia they are ultimately near Middletown, ending the campaign through the Shenandoah valley against Washington D.C.

1900 – Max Planck formulates his scientific law of black body radiation

1944 – U.S. forces land on Leyte island to begin the liberation of the Philippines from Japan occupation

1987 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%, 508 points the highest one day percentage drop at that time.

2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.

Births
1885 – Charles E. Merrill
1901 – Arleigh Burke
1910 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
1928 – Lou Scheimer
1931 – John le Carré
1941 – Simon Ward
1945 – John Lithgow, Jeannie C. Riley
1956 – Steve Doocy, Grover Norquist
1958 – Michael Steele

Deaths
1745 – Jonathan Swift
1864 – BGs Daniel D. Bidwell, Charles R. Lowell, Jr. USA
1897 – George Pullman
1905 – Virgil Earp
1950 – Edna St. Vincent Millay
1978 – Gig Young
2010 – Tom Bosley

October 18

1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah

1540 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto’s forces destroy the town of Mabila in present day Alabama, killing Chief Tuskaloosa.

1851 – Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick is published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.

1867 – After purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million, the U.S. takes possession of Alaska

1945 – The Russians receive plans for the United States plutonium bomb from spy Klaus Fuchs employed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

1954 – Texas Instruments announces the first transistor radio.

Births
1663 – Prince Eugene of Savoy
1915 – Victor Sen Yung
1920 – Melina Mercouri
1926 – Chuck Berry
1927 – George C. Scott
1934 – Inger Stevens
1938 – Dawn Wells
1939 – Mike Ditka
1956 – Jim Talent
1960 – Erin Moran, Jean-Claude Van Damme
1961 – Wynton Marsalis

Deaths
1871 – Charles Babbage
1931 – Thomas Edison
1965 – Henry Travers
1966 – Elizabeth Arden, S. S. Kresge
1973 – Walt Kelly
1975 – Al Lettieri
1982 – Bess Truman
2000 – Julie London, Gwen Verdon
2012 – Sylvia Kristel
2013 – Tom Foley

October 17

1448 – An Ottoman army defeats a Hungarian army at the Second Battle of Kosovo.

1604 – Kepler’s Supernova is observed in the constellation of Ophiuchus.

1777 – British General John Burgoyne surrenders his army at Saratoga, New York.

1781 – British General Charles, Earl Cornwallis surrenders his army at the Siege of Yorktown.

1907 – The Marconi Company begins the first commercial transatlantic wireless service.

1931 – Alphonse Capone is convicted of income tax evasion.

1933 – Albert Einstein flees Nazi Germany and moves to the United States.

1941 – While still technically a neutral power, the destroyer USS Kearny becomes the first U.S. Navy vessel attacked during World War II, suffering heavy damage from a torpedo fired from a German U-Boat being depth charged by the vessel off Iceland.

1973 – OPEC imposes an oil embargo against countries they deem to have helped Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

2019 – Heavily armed gangsters of the Sinaloa Drug Cartel force the Mexican government to release the son of former cartel boss ‘El Chapo’ Guzmán after his arrest.

Births
1582 – Johann Gerhard
1860 – Henry Campbell Black
1900 – Jean Arthur
1902 – Irene ‘Granny’ Ryan
1915 – Arthur Miller
1918 – Rita Hayworth
1920 – Montgomery Clift
1926 – Julie Adams
1933 – Jeannine ‘The Singing Nun’ Deckers
1938 – Evel Knievel
1948 – Margot Kidder
1950 – Howard Rollins

Deaths
1552 – Andreas Osiander
1849 – Frédéric Chopin
1967 – Puyi
2013 – Lou Scheimer

October 16

1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette is executed on the guillotine

1859 – John Brown leading 21 men raids the U.S. Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

1875 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.

1919 – Adolf Hitler delivers his first public address at a meeting of the German Workers’ Party.

1939 – 603 Squadron RAF, flying Spitfires, intercepts the first Luftwaffe raid on Great Britain also making the first fighter kill of the war over the country.

1940 – The Warsaw Ghetto is established.

1946 – Ten defendants found guilty by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg are executed by hanging.

1962 – President Kennedy is informed of the aerial photos taken on October 14 of Russian nuclear missiles being installed in Cuba

1991 – A man kills 23 and wounds 20 more people after driving his truck into Luby’s restaurant in Killeen, Texas. One of the patrons, Suzanna Gratia Hupp, left her handgun in her vehicle instead of breaking the law, and later continued to campaign for Texas concealed carry until it was passed into law 4 years later.

1998 – Former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet is arrested in London on a murder extradition warrant.

Births
1758 – Noah Webster
1847 – Maria Pia of Savoy
1854 – Oscar Wilde
1886 – David Ben-Gurion
1898 – William O. Douglas
1908 – Enver Hoxha
1923 – Linda Darnell
1925 – Angela Lansbury
1929 – Fernanda Montenegro
1958 – Tim Robbins

Deaths
1791 – Grigory Potemkin
1859 – Heyward Shepherd
1946 – Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, Joachim von Ribbentrop
1959 – Gen George Marshall
1972 – Nick Begich, Hale Boggs, Russell Brown, Don Jonz
1978 – Dan Dailey
1981 – Moshe Dayan
1989 – Cornel Wilde
1991 – Patricia Carney, Jimmie Caruthers, Kriemhild Davis, Steven Dody, Alphonse Gratia, Ursula Gratia, Debra Gray, Michael Griffith, Venice Henehan, Clodine Humphrey, Sylvia King, Zona Lynn, Connie Peterson, Ruth Pujol, Su-Zann Rashott, John Romero, Jr., Thomas Simmons, Glen Arval Spivey, Nancy Stansbury, Olgica Taylor, James Welsh, Lula Welsh, Iva Juanita Williams
1992 – Shirley Booth
1997 – James A. Michener
2000 – Mel Carnahan, Rick Jason
2004 – Pierre Salinger
2007 – Deborah Kerr
2010 – Barbara Billingsley
2017 – Roy Dotrice

October 15

1066 – Following the death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings, Edgar the Ætheling is proclaimed King of England by the Witan, but is never crowned before William of Normandy claims the throne.

1529 – The First Siege of Vienna ends with Austria routing the invading Ottoman forces.

1582 – The states of the Holy Roman Empire replace the Julian Calendar with the Gregorian version

1783 – The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon makes the first ascent with a human pilot; Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier.

1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette of France is tried and convicted of treason.

1815 – Napoleon begins his second and final exile on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.

1878 – The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

1917 – Margaretha “Mata Hari” MacLeod is executed by France for espionage.

1945 – The former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is executed for treason.

1979 – A coup d’état in El Salvador overthrows President Carlos Humberto Romero and starts the Salvadoran Civil War.

Births
70 BC – Publius Vergilius Maro
1608 – Evangelista Torricelli
1844 – Friedrich Nietzsche
1858 – John L. Sullivan
1917 – Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.
1920 – Mario Puzo
1924 – Lee Iacocca
1926 – Jean Peters
1943 – Penny Marshall
1946 – Richard Carpenter
1959 – Sarah of York

Deaths
412 – Theophilus of Alexandria
1930 – Herbert Henry Dow
1946 – Hermann Göring
1963 – Horton Smith
1964 – Cole Porter
1983 – Pat O’Brien
2008 – Edie Adams
2012 – Norodom Sihanouk
2018 – Paul Allen

October 14

1066 – Having been informed by his scouts of the approach of King Harold Godwinson’s army in an attempt at a surprise attack, Duke William of Normandy marches his troops and the armies engage a few miles northwest of the town of Hastings, resulting in an costly, but overwhelming, victory by the Normans.

1322 – The army of Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats the army of King Edward II of England at the Battle of Old Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence.

1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I of England

1656 – The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends

1863 – At the Battle of Bristoe Station, Confederate troops under the command of A. P. Hill are repelled by Union rear guard troops under the command of Gouverneur K. Warren, failing in the effort to drive Union forces out of Virginia.

1884 – George Eastman receives a U.S. patent for strip type photographic film.

1943 – Prisoners at the NAZI Sobibor extermination camp in Poland covertly assassinate most of the on duty SS officers and then stage a mass breakout.

1947 – Piloting the Bell X-1 Glamorous Glennis rocket plane over Rogers Dry Lake in California, Chuck Yeager becomes the first person to exceed the speed of sound

1962 – The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when an American reconnaissance aircraft takes photographs of Soviet ballistic missiles being installed in Cuba.

1968 – The first live TV broadcast by American astronauts in orbit is performed by the Apollo 7 crew.

1982 – President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.
(really been successful, hasn’t it?)

Births
1644 – William Penn
1890 – Dwight D. Eisenhower
1893 – Lillian Gish
1900 – W. Edwards Deming
1916 – C. Everett Koop
1927 – Roger Moore
1927 – Roger Moore
1940 – J. C. Snead

Deaths
1066 – Harold Godwinson, Leofwine Godwinson, Gyrth Godwinson
1943 – Rudolf Beckmann, Siegfried Graetschus, Johann Niemann
1944 – Field Marshal Erwin Rommel
1959 – Errol Flynn
1977 – Bing Crosby
1986 – Keenan Wynn
1990 – Leonard Bernstein
1997 – Harold Robbins
1998 – Cleveland Amory
2006 – Freddy Fender
2006 – Gerry Studds
2009 – Lou Albano
2010 – Simon MacCorkindale
2012 – Arlen Specter
2014 – Elizabeth Peña

October 13

54 – Roman emperor Claudius dies under mysterious circumstances and is succeeded by Nero

1775 – The Continental Congress establishes the Continental Navy

1884 – The International Meridian Conference establishes the meridian of the Greenwich Observatory as the prime meridian.

1903 – The Boston Red Sox win the first modern World Series, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the eighth game.

Births
1853 – Lillie Langtry
1890 – Conrad Richter
1912 – Cornel Wilde
1921 – Yves Montand
1925 – Margaret Thatcher
1959 – Marie Osmond
1960 – Ari Fleischer
1962 – Kelly Preston
1964 – Christopher Judge
1969 – Nancy Kerrigan

Deaths
1938 – E. C. Segar,
1945 – Milton S. Hershey
1966 – Clifton Webb
1968 – Bea Benaderet
1974 – Ed Sullivan
2000 – Jean Peters
2001 – Peter Doyle
2002 – Stephen Ambrose
2012 – SFC Ryan Savard USA

Hello, Columbus—Celebrate The Great Man!

What if Christopher Columbus hadn’t sailed the ocean blue in 1492?

Woke critics of the great mariner insist that the world would be a better place if he’d stuck closer to the shores of Europe and that, moreover, Columbus himself is unworthy of the great admiration heaped upon him in previous times.

He is the ultimate exemplar of white, male privilege in the woke view. They are wrong.

Columbus remains an inspiring historical figure for those who have not dissolved into a frenzy of hatred of the West. Several columnists are giving us excellent advice on this Columbus Day: David Marcus urges, “Happy Columbus Day, Say It Loud, Say It Proud,” Dave Seminara argues in City Journal that we “Don’t Defend Columbus—Celebrate Him,” and the Daily Signal’s Jarrett Stepman examines the historical record in “The Truth about Columbus.”

As Marcus sees it, Columbus was the first person in history to exemplify the American Dream—he did this before we had America:

Christopher Columbus wasn’t just the man most responsible for opening up the New World to the Old; he was also an example of the American Dream centuries before our nation was born.

The son of a tradesman, he was mainly self-taught in the ways of words and letters and began acquiring his sailing chops as early as age 10. This wasn’t a privileged young man, but rather one who through pluck, will and a healthy Catholic faith, rose far above his humble origins and became one of humanity’s greatest and most ­famous heroes.

At a time when the world is battling a global pandemic and the economic catastrophe of lockdowns, Columbus offers an example to us about balancing the fear of death against the immortal human ­longing for prosperity, achievement and discovery.

Columbus, Marcus writes, contributed to the creation of the modern world—and that’s the rub. Wokesters seek to tear down the modern world. Hence it is only natural that, to the degree they care which statues they pull down (the destruction itself is primary), Columbus is a natural target. Read Marcus’ entire column. Continue reading “”

October 12

539 BC – The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia under the command of Gubaru takes Babylon, bringing down the Babylonian empire.

1492 – Christopher Columbus’ first expedition makes landfall in the Caribbean, somewhere in The Bahamas.

1692 – The Salem witch trials are ended by a letter from Province of Massachusetts Bay Governor William Phips.

1792 – The first celebration of Columbus Day is held in New York City.

1810 – The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.

1849 – The city of Manizales, Colombia, is founded by ‘The Expedition of the 20’.

1901 – President Theodore Roosevelt officially renames the “Executive Mansion” to the “White House”.

1945 – Corporal Desmond Doss is the first conscientious objector to receive the Medal of Honor.

2000 – The US Navy Arleigh Burke class destroyer, USS Cole is damaged by two Al Qaida suicide bombers, killing 17 and wounding 39 crew members.

Births
1710 – Jonathan Trumbull
1919 – Doris ‘Dorie’ Miller
1932 – Dick Gregory
1935 – Luciano Pavarotti
1947 – Chris Wallace
1950 – Susan Anton
1965 – Scott O’Grady
1970 – Kirk Cameron

Deaths
322 BC – Demosthenes
1870 – Gen Robert E. Lee
1946 – Gen Joseph Stilwell
1969 – Sonja Henie
1971 – Dean Acheson
1985 – Johnny Olson
1987 – Alf Landon
1989 – Jay Ward
1991 – Regis Toomey
1993 – Leon Ames
1996 – René Lacoste
1997 – John Denver
1999 – Wilt Chamberlain
2000 – CPO Richard Costelow, SSR Cheron Luis Gunn, SM2 James Rodrick, SR  Lakiba Palmer, OS2 Timothy Saunders, ENS Andrew Triplett, SA Craig Wibberley, HMT3 Kenneth Clodfelter, MMS Lakeina Francis, ISS Timothy Gauna, MMM2 Mark Nieto, EFM Joshua Parlett, EWT3 Ronald Owens, FA Patrick Roy, EWT2 Kevin Rux, MMS3 Ronchester Mananga, FM Gary Graham Swenchonis Jr.
2002 – Ray Conniff
2003 – Bill Shoemaker

October 11

1531 – Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle in Switzerland.

1767 – Surveying for the Mason–Dixon line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.

1890 – The Daughters of the American Revolution is founded in Washington, D.C.

1910 – Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. president to fly in an airplane.

1942 – Off the Solomon Islands between Guadalcanal and Savo, U.S. Navy ships intercept and defeat a Japanese force.

1968 – NASA launches Apollo 7

1976 – George Washington is posthumously promoted to the grade of General of the Armies. Technically 0-12.

Births
1739 – Grigory Potemkin
1884 – Eleanor Roosevelt
1925 – Elmore Leonard
1936 – C. Gordon Fullerton
1966 – Luke Perry

Deaths
965 – Bruno of Cologne
1809 – Meriwether Lewis
1961 – Chico Marx
1971 – LTG Lewis ‘Chesty’ Puller USMC
1991 – John ‘Redd Foxx’ Sanford
2007 – BG David “Tex” Hill USA
2019 – Alexei Leonov