636 – The moslem Rashidun Caliphate defeats the Sasanian Empire, the last non-moslem empire of Persia, at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah in modern day Iraq.
1493 – Christopher Columbus lands and claims the island he names San Juan Bautista – modern Puerto Rico.
1794 – The United States delegation headed by John Jay, and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign a 10 year treaty which attempts to resolve some of the economic, trade and territory occupation problems left over from the Paris Treaty of 1783 which ended the Revolutionary War.
1863 – President Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the dedication ceremony for the military cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
1912 – During the First Balkan War, the Serbian Army defeats in detail the Ottoman Army in Monastir Vilayet near the modern town of Bitola, causing a collapse of the 5 century long rule of Macedonia by the Ottoman Empire
1916 – Samuel Goldwyn and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures.
1942 – Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launch Operation Uranus, a counterattack on Nazi forces at Stalingrad.
1950 – US General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes Supreme Commander of NATO-Europe.
1955 – National Review publishes its first issue.
1969 – The Apollo 12 Lunar Excursion Module Intrepid lands on the moon at Oceanus Procellarum – Ocean of Storms – and astronauts Pete Conrad and Alan Bean become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
1979 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.
1985 – President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time at a summit in Geneva.
1996 – United Express Flight 5925, a Beechcraft 1900, and a private Beechcraft King Air collide on the runway at Quincy Regional Airport in Quincy, Illinois, killing all 14 passengers and crew aboard both craft.
1998 – The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against President Clinton.
2017 – Charles Manson dies in prison, completing his life sentence for multiple murders.
2022 – A man shoots and kills 5 people and wounds 19 more at a nightclub in Colorado Springs before being physically subdued, and later sentenced to 5 consecutive terms of life in prison without the possibility of parole, plus 2,211 years