1502 – Christopher Columbus lands at Guanaja in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras during his fourth voyage.
1619 – In Jamestown, Virginia, the first Colonial European representative assembly in the Americas, the Virginia General Assembly, convenes for the first time.
1676 – Nathaniel Bacon issues the “Declaration of the People of Virginia”, beginning Bacon’s Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
1718 – William Penn, the founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, dies at his home in Ruscombe, England.
1729 – Founding of Baltimore, Maryland.
1863 – Representatives of the United States and tribal leaders including Shoshone Chief Pocatello sign the Treaty of Box Elder, compensating the tribe for their land claim at a rate of about 50¢ per acre.
1864 – Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.
1865 – The steamboat Brother Jonathan sinks off the coast of Crescent City, California, killing 225 passengers.
1871 – The steam boiler of the Staten Island Ferry Westfield explodes, killing 85 people.
1881 – Marine General Smedley Butler, the last servicemember to be twice awarded the Medal of Honor is born in West Chester, Pennsylvania.
1945 – On the way to the Phillipines after delivering the components for the Little Boy nuclear bomb, the USS Indianapolis is torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-58, killing 883 seamen. Most die during the following four days, until an aircraft notices the survivors.
1956 – A joint resolution of the U.S. Congress is signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, authorizing In God We Trust as the U.S. national motto.
1965 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Social Security Act into law, establishing Medicare and Medicaid.
1971 – The Apollo 15 Lunar Module Falcon, piloted by David Scott and James Irwin land on the Moon near Hadley Rille with the first Lunar Rover for a 3 day visit.
1974 – President Nixon releases subpoenaed White House recordings after being ordered to do so by the Supreme Court of the United States.
1975 – Jimmy Hoffa disappears from the parking lot of the Machus Red Fox restaurant in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, never to be seen again.
2020 – NASA’s Mars 2020 mission is launched on an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral with the Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter aboard.